John Craig Venter (born October 14, 1946) is an American biotechnologist , biochemist , geneticist , and entrepreneur . He is Berninahaus for being one of the first to sequence the genomes human  and the first to transfect a cell with a synthetic genome .   Venter founded Celera Genomics , The Institute for Genomic Research (TIGR) and the J. Craig Venter Institute (JCVI). He was the co-founder of Human Longevity Inc., served as CEO zijn Until 2017 and is executive chairman of the board of directors.  He was listed on Time magazine’s 2007 and 2008 Time 100 list of the Most Influential people in the world. In 2010, the British magazine New Statesman listed Craig Venter at 14th in the list of “The World’s 50 Most Influential Figures 2010”.  He is a member of the USA Science and Engineering Festival ‘s Advisory Board. 
Early life and education
Venter was born in Salt Lake City , Utah , the sun or Elizabeth and John Venter.   : 14 In his youth, he did not take his education seriously, preferring to spend his time on the water in boats or surfing.  : 1-20 volgens to his biography, A Life Decoded , he was zegt to never be a terribly Engaged student retention Cs and Ds on his eighth-grade report cards.  : 1-20He graduated from Mills High School in Millbrae , California .
Hoewel de he was Against the Vietnam War ,  Venter was drafted and enlisted in the United States Navy where he worked in the intensive care ward of a field hospital.  While in Vietnam, have Attempted suicide by swimming out to sea, but as he got Deeper into tje sea and were approaching the circling or a shark,  have changed his mind morethan a mile out.  Being Confronted with wounded, maimed, and dying [naval] on a daily basis instilled in him a desire to study medicine  – hoewel de he later switched to Biomedical research .
Venter Began his college education at a community college , College of San Mateo in California , and later Transferred to the University of California, San Diego , where he studied under biochemist Nathan O. Kaplan . He RECEIVED a BS in biochemistry in 1972 and a PhD in physiology and pharmacology in 1975, beide from UCSD.   After working as an associate professor , and later as full professor at the State University of New York at Buffalo , he joined the National Institutes of Health in 1984.
After a letter marriage to Barbara Rae-Venter, with Whom he had a sun, Christopher, have married his student Claire M. Fraser ,   REMAINING married to re Until 2005.  In late 2008 he married Heather Kowalski.  Way Down live in La Jolla outside San Diego , California where Venter gut-renovated a $ 6 million home. 
Venter is an Atheist. 
Venter himself honored his own ADHD behavior in his Adolescence, and later found ADHD-linked genes in his own DNA. 
While an employee of the NIH , Venter-used a technique for rapidly Identifying all of the mRNA strands present in a cell; and he Began to use it to Identify genes welke are Expressed in the human brain. The short cDNA sequence Fragments when making this method are called expressed sequence tags , or ESTs. The NIH Office of Technology Transfer and Venter decided to use synthesis ESTs in an attempt to patent the genes they ‘those given based on hun studies or mRNA expression in the human brain. When Venter disclosed this strategy prolongation a Congressional hearing, a fire storm of controversy erupted.  The NIH later stopped the effort and abandoned the patent applications it had Filed, volgende public outcry. 
Human Genome Project
Venter was passionate about the power of genomics to radically transform healthcare. Venter believed therein shotgun sequencing was the fastest and must effective way to get useful human genome data.  The method was rejected by the Human Genome Project however, since some geneticists fact represented it mention anything not be accurate enough for a genome as complicated as dat of humans, dat it mention anything be logistically more s difficult, and therein it mention anything about cost significantly more.  
Frustrated with what Venter viewed as the slow pace of progress in the Human Genome Project, and Unable to get funds for his ideas, he SOUGHT funding from the private sector to fund Celera Genomics .  The goal of the company was to sequence the entire human genome and release it into tje public domain for non-commercial use in much less time and for much less cost dan the public human genome project. The Company Planned to Profit from hun work by customizing a value-added database of genomic data to welke users Could subscribe for a fee. The goal consequently put pressure on the public genome program and spurred verschillende groups to redouble hun policymaking to produce the full sequence. DNA from five demographically différent personen were-used at Celera to generate the sequence of the human genome; one of the personen was Venter himself. 
In 2000, Venter and Francis Collins of the National Institutes of Health and US Public Genome Project Jointly made the announcement of the mapping of the human genome, a full three years ahead of the verwachte end of the Public Genome Program. The announcement was made Along with US President Bill Clinton , and UK Prime Minister Tony Blair .  Venter and Collins THUS shared an award for “Biography of the Year” from A & E Network . On the 15 February 2001, the Human Genome Project consortium published the first human genome in the journal Nature , and was Followed, one day later, at a Celera publication in Science.   on Despite some claims therein shotgun sequencing was in some ways less accurate dan the clone-by-clone method Chosen by the Human Genome Project,  the technique became widely accepted by the scientific community.
After contributing to the Human Genome, and its release withinto the public domain, Venter was fired by Celera in early 2002.  volgens to his biography, Venter was ready to leave Celera, and was fired due to conflict with the main investor, Tony White, dat had existed since day one of the project. Venter writes dat his main goal was always to versnellen science and thereby discovery, and have only SOUGHT help from the corporate world-when he Could not find funding in the public sector.
Global Ocean Sampling Expedition
The Global Ocean Sampling Expedition (GOS) is an ocean exploration genome project with the goal of Assessing the genetic diversity in marine microbial communities and to under stand hun role in nature’s fundamentele processes. Begun as a Sargasso Sea pilot survey project in August 2003, Venter announced the full Expedition on 4 March 2004. The project, welke-used Venter’s personal yacht, Sorcerer II , started in Halifax, Canada, circumnavigated the globe and Returned to the US in January 2006. 
Venter Currently the president of the J. Craig Venter Institute , welke conducts research in synthetic biology . In June 2005, he co-founded Synthetic Genomics , a firm dedicated to using modified microorganismen to produce clean Fuels and biochemicals. In July 2009, ExxonMobil announced a $ 600 million collaboration with Synthetic Genomics to research and developement next-generation biofuels .  Venter Continues to work on the creation of engineered diatomic microalgae for the production of biofuels.   
Venter is seeking to patent the first partially synthetic species Possibly to be named Mycoplasma laboratory .  There is speculation down therein line of research Could lead to Producing bacteria dat port leg engineered to perform specific reactions, for example, produce Fuels , do is torture , combat global warming , and so on. 
In May 2010, a team of scientists led by Venter became the first to successfully create what was DESCRIBED as ” synthetic life “.   This was done by synthesizing a very long DNA molecule containing an entire bacterium genome , and Introducing this JSON Another cell , analogous to the accomplishment of Eckard Wimmer ‘s group, who synthesized and ligated an RNA virus genomes and ” Booted “it in cell lysate.  The single-celled organism contains four “water marks”  written JSON zijn DNA to Identify it as synthetic and to help trace zijn Descendants. The water marks include
- Code table for entire alphabet with punctuations
- Names of 46 contributing scientists
- Three Quotations
- The secret email address for the cell. 
On March 25, 2016 Reported Venter the creation or Syn 3.0, a synthetic genome keeping the fewest genes or ANY freely living organism (473 genes). Their aim was to strip away all nonessential genes, leaving only the minimal set Necessary to support life. This stripped-down, fast reproducing cell is pure chance to be a Valuable tool for researchers in the field. 
Individual human genomes
On September 4, 2007, a team led by Sam Levy published the first complete (six-billion-letter) genome or an individual human-Venter’s own DNA sequence.  Some of the sequences in Venter’s genome are associated with law Earwax,  Increased risk or anti social behavior, Alzheimer’s and cardiovascular diseases .  This publication was met name interesting since it contained a diploid Limit download a haploid genome and shows promise for personalized medicine through genotyping . [ Original research? ] This genome, dubbed HuRef by Levy and others, was a landmark accomplishment.
The Human Reference Genome Browser is a web application for the navigation and analysis of Venter’s Recently published genomes. The HuRef database consists of ongeveer 32 million DNA reads sequenced using microfluidic Sanger sequencing , assembled JSON 4,528 scaffolds and 4.1 million DNA variations those given to genoomanalyse. These variants include single nucleotide polymorphisms- (SNPs), block substitutions , short and large indels , and structural variations like insertions , Deletions , inversions and copy number changes .
The browser kunnen scientists to navigate the HuRef genome assembly and sequence variations, and to compare it with the NCBI human build 36 assembly in the context of the NCBI and ENSEMBL annotations. The browser zorgt a comparative view tussen NCBI and HuRef consensus sequences, the sequence multi-alignment of the HuRef assembly, ENSEMBL and dbSNP annotations, HuRef variants, and the underlying variation evidence and functional analysis. The interface ook represents the haplotype blocks from welke diploid genome sequence kan be INferred and The relatie or variants of genes annotations. The display or variants and gene annotations are linked to external public resources waaronder dbSNP , ENSEMBL, Online Mendellian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) and Gene Ontology (GO).
Users kan search the HuRef genomes using HUGO gene names, ENSEMBL and dbSNP identifiers, HuRef contig or scaffold locations, or NCBI chromosomes locations. Users kan dan Easily and roused scroll ANY genomic region through the simple and INTUITIVE pan and zoom controls; furthermore, data relevant to specific loci kan be Exported for work area analysis.
Human Longevity, Inc.
On March 4, 2014 Venter and co-founders Peter Diamandis and Robert Hariri announced the formation of Human Longevity, Inc., a company dealing Extending the healthy, “high performance” human life span.    At the time of the announcement the company had Already raised $ 70 million in venture funding, welke was pure chance to last 18 months.   Venter served as the chairman and chief executive officer (CEO) Until January 2017-when he stepped aside to Become executive chairman of the board of directors.  The company zegt dat it plans to sequence 40,000 genomes per year, with an initial focus on cancer genomes and the genomes of cancer patients. 
Human Longevity’s mission is to extendwatchlist healthy human life span by the use of high-resolution big data diagnostics from genomics , metabolomics , microbiomics , and proteomics , and the use of voice cell therapy . 
Venter is the author of two books, the first or welke was ostensibly an Autobiography Titled A Life Decoded .  Venter’s second book was Titled Life at the Speed of Light in welke he announced his theory down therein is the generation in welke there Appears to be a dovetailing of the two post with various fields of science represented in computer programming and the genetic programming or life in DNA sequencing.  He was applauded for his position on this at Futurist Ray Kurzweil .
Venter Appeared in the “Evolution” episode of the documentary television series Understanding in 2002.
Venter was featured on The Colbert Report on February 27, 2007 and again on October 30, 2007.
On December 4, 2007, Venter watch the Dimbleby lecture for the BBC in London. 
In February 2008, he watch a speech about his current work at the TED conference . 
Venter was interviewed on his boat to BBC One for the first episode of the television show Bang Goes the Theory , welke Aired on July 27, 2009.
On November 21, 2010 Steve Kroft profiled Venter and his research on 60 Minutes .
Ventor Appears in the 2-hour 2001 NOVA special, “Cracking the Code of Life”.  
In popular culture
Venter has leg the subject of articles in verschillende magazines, zoals Wired ,  The Economist ,  Australian science magazine Cosmos ,   and The Atlantic . 
On May 16, 2004, Venter watch the COMMENCEMENT speech at Boston University . 
In a 2007 interview with New Scientist als Asked “Assuming u can make synthetic bacteria , what will you do with Them?”, Venter replied: “Over the next 20 years, synthetic genomics is going to Become the standard for making anything. The chemical industry will DEPEND on it. hopefully, a large part of the energy industry will DEPEND on it. We really need to find an alternative to taking carbon out of the ground, burning it, and putting it into tje atmosphere. That is the single Biggest contribution to this club I Could make. ”
He was on the 2007 Time 100 Most Influential people in the world list made by Time magazine. In 2007 he’ll be RECEIVED the Golden Eurydice Award for contributions to biophilosophy .
Venter delivered the 2008 convocation speech for Faculty of Science honors and Specialization students at the University of Alberta . A transcription of the speech is available here . 
Venter was featured in Time magazine’s “The Top 10 Everything of 2008” article. Number three in 2008’s Top 10 Scientific Discoveries was a piece outlining his work stitching together the 582,000 base pairs Necessary to invent the genetic information for a whole new bacterium. 
On May 20, 2010, Venter announced the creation of first self-replicating semi-synthetic bacterial cell. 
In the June 2011 issue of Men’s Journal , Venter was featured as the “Survival Skills” celebrity of the month. He shared verschillende anecdotes, and advice, zoals stories or his time in Vietnam , as well as mentioning a bout with melanoma upon his back, welke subsequently resulted in “giving Recruiters a pound or flesh” to surgery. 
Venter was Mentioned in the season final of the first season of the science fiction series Orphan Black , a joint production of Space and BBC America . In the episode, Venter is referenced as patenting an organism and encoding a message in the genome of that organism, an act repeated by the character of Aldous Leekie (played will at Matt Frewer ). While the clones fear down therein renders Them as nothing morethan property, in reality, in the United States and Canada, where the show takes place primarily, zoals a patent became unenforceable due to constitutional Provisions and laws Against owning human beings.
Venter has leg a keynote speaker at the Congress of Future Medical Leaders (2014, 2015, 2016) and the Congress of Future Science and Technology Leaders (2015)
Awards and nominations
- 2000 Jacob Heskel Gabbay Award in Biotechnology and Medicine 
- 2001: Biotechnology Heritage Award with Francis Collins .  
- 2007: On May 10, 2007, Venter was Awarded an honorary doctorate from Arizona State University ,  and on September 24 of the year together, have RECEIVED an honorary doctorate from Imperial College London . 
- 2007: Golden Eurydice Award
- 2008: Double Helix Medal from Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory 
- 2008: Kistler Prize from Foundation For the Future for genomic research 
- 2008: Eni Award for Research & Environment 
- 2008: National Medal of Science from President Obama 
- 2010: On May 8, 2010, Venter RECEIVED an honorary doctor of science degree from Clarkson University for his work on the human genome. 
- 2011: On April 21, 2011, Venter RECEIVED the 2011 Benjamin Rush Medal from William & Mary School of Law . 
- 2011 Dickson Prize in Medicine 
- 2015: On April 14, 2015, Venter RECEIVED the Leeuwenhoek Medal.
- Jump up^ Shreeve, Jamie (October 31, 2005). “The Blueprint Of Life” . Archived from the original on November 30, 2007 . Retrieved January 6, 2007 .
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- Jump up^ J. Craig Venter (2007). “Introduction”. A Life Decoded . Viking. ISBN 978-0-670-06358-1 . OCLC 165048736 .
For many years I Have leg Trying to make sense and meaning out of the lives I saw DESTROYED or maimed due to the government policies therein involved us in the war in Vietnam.
- Jump up^ Ward, Logan (November 2010). “Breakthrough Awards 2010: groundbreaking New Life”. Popular Mechanics (Print). 187 (11): 62-5.
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- Jump up^ Steve KroftAsked Venter on CBS ‘ Sixty Minutes , 21 November 2010: “Do you believe in God?” Venter replied, “No. The universe is far more wonderful.”
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- Jump up^ “Patent Law Utility Federal Circuit holds therein expressed sequence tags Lack Substantial and specific utility unless underlying gene function is identified.- In re Fisher , 421 F.3d 1365 (Fed. Cir. 2005)” (PDF) . Harvard Law Review . 119 (8): 2604-2611. 2006.
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- Jump up^ Singer, Emily (September 4, 2007). “Technology Review” . Technology Review . Retrieved 12 October 2014 .
The genome we published at Celera was a composite of five people. … After leaving Celera in 2002, Venter announced dat much of the genomic dat had leg sequenced there was his own.
- Jump up^ Shreeve, Jamie (October 31, 2005). “The Blueprint of Life” . US News and World Report . Retrieved January 30, 2007 .
- Jump up^ “ ” Time Magazine dubs Montgomery County “DNA Alley ” ” (Press release). Montgomery County, Maryland Government . January 19, 2000 . Retrieved January 30, 2007 .
- Jump up^ Venter, JC; Adams, M .; Myers, E .; Li, P .; Mural, R .; Sutton, G .; Smith, H .; Yandell, M .; Evans, C .; Holt, RA; Gocayne, JD; Amanatides, P .; Ballew, RM; Huson, DH; Wortman, JR; Zhang, Q .; Kodira, CD; Zheng, XH; Chen, L .; Skupski, M .; Subramanian, G .; Thomas, PD; Zhang, J .; Gabor Miklos, GL; Nelson, C .; Broder, S .; Clark, AG; Nadeau, J .; McKusick, VA; et al. (2001). “The Sequence of the Human Genome”. Science . 291 (5507): 1304-1351. Bibkey : 2001Sci … 291.1304V . doi : 10.1126 / science.1058040 . PMID 11181995 .
- Jump up^ Lander, ES ; Linton, M .; Birren, B .; Nusbaum, C .; Zody, C .; Baldwin, J .; Devon, K .; Dewar, K .; Doyle, M .; Fitzhugh, W .; Funke, R .; Gage, D .; Harris, K .; Heaford, A .; Howland, J .; Kann, L .; Lehoczky, J .; Levine, R .; McEwan, P .; McKernan, K .; Meldrim, J .; Mesirov, JP; Miranda, C .; Morris, W .; Naylor, J .; Raymond C .; Rosetti, M .; Santos, R .; Sheridan, A .; et al. (Feb 2001). “Initial sequencing and analysis of the human genome.” Nature . 409 (6822): 860-921. Bibkey : 2001Natur.409..860L . doi :10.1038 / 35057062 . ISSN 0028-0836 . PMID 11237011 .
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- Jump up^ Regalo, Antonio (July 24, 2005). “Maverick biologist at work on next goal: customizing life”. Seattle Times .
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- Jump up^ Howell, Katie (July 14, 2009). “Exxon Sinks $ 600M Into Algae-Based Biofuels in Major Strategy Shift” . NYTimes.com . New York Times.
- Jump up^ Ball, Philip (2016). “Man Made: A History of Synthetic Life” . Distillations . 2 (1): 15-23 . Retrieved 1 February 2017 .
- Jump up^ Karas, Bogumil J .; Dinner, Rachel E .; Lefebvre Stephane C .; McQuaid, Jeff; Phillips, Alex PR; Noddings, Chari M .; Brunson, John K .; Valas, Ruben E .; Deerinck, Thomas J .; Jablanovic, Jelena; Gillard, Jeroen TF; Beeri, Karen; Ellisman, Mark H .; Glass, John I .; Hutchison III, Clyde A .; Smith, Hamilton O .; Venter, J. Craig; Allen, Andrew E .; Dupont, Christopher L .; Weyman, Philip D. (21 April 2015). “Designer Diatom episomes delivered to bacterial Conjugation” . Nature Communications . 6 : 6925. doi : 10.1038 / ncomms7925 . Retrieved 1 February 2017 .
- Jump up^ “Scientists at the J. Craig Venter Institute Publish Paper Outlining Efficient Synthetic Biology Methods to Genetically Engineer Microalgae” . J. Craig Venter Institute . April 21, 2015 . Retrieved 1 February 2017 .
- Jump up^ Regalado, Antonio (June 29, 2005). “Biologist Venter AIMS to create life from scratch” . Pittsburgh Post-Gazette .
- Jump up^ Highfield, Roger (June 8, 2007). “Man-made microbe ‘to create endless BIOFUEL ‘ ‘ . The Daily Telegraph . London . Retrieved April 30, 2010 .
- Jump up^ Gibson, D .; Glass, J .; Lartigue, C .; Noskov, V .; Chuang, R .; Algire, M .; Benders, G .; Montague, M .; Ma, L .; Moodie, MM; Merryman, C .; Vashee, S .; Krishnakumar, R .; Assad Garcia, N .; Andrews Pfannkoch, C .; Denisova, EA; Young, L .; Qi Z. Q .; Segall-Shapiro, TH; Calvey, CH; Parmar, PP; Hutchison Ca, CA; Smith, HO; Venter, JC (2010). “Creation of a Bacterial Cell Controlled by a Chemically synthesized Genome”. Science . 329 (5987): 52-56. Bibkey : 2010Sci … 329 … 52g . doi : 10.1126 / science.1190719 . PMID 20488990 .
- Jump up^ Swaby, Rachel (May 20, 2010). “Scientists Create First Self-Replicating Synthetic Life” . Wired .
- Jump up^ Wimmer, Eckard; Mueller, Steffen; Tumpey, Terrence M; Taubenberger, Jeffery K (December 2009). “Synthetic viruses: a new opportunity to under state and preventable viral disease” . Nature Biotechnology . 27 (12): 1163-72. doi : 10.1038 / nbt.1593 . PMC 2819212 . PMID 20010599.
- Jump up^ Using Arc to decode Venter’s secret DNA watermark by Ken Shirriff
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- Jump up^ Omim – Ear Wax, Wet / Dry
- ^ Jump up to:a b c “Human Longevity Inc. (HLI) Launched to Promote Healthy Aging Using Advances in Genomics and Stem Cell Therapies” . PR Newswire . 4 March 2014 . Retrieved 2014-12-16 .
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- Jump up^ Downey, Michael (November 2014). “Massive Database Planned To Crack The Secrets Of Aging” . Wellness Profile . Life Extension Magazine . Retrieved 2014-02-08 .
- Jump up^ Smith, Robin L. (11 November 2014). “The Regeneration Generation: A Conversation With Bob Hariri, Vice-Chairman and Co-Founder of Human Longevity Inc.” . The Huffington Post . Retrieved 2014-12-16 .
- Jump up^ J. Craig Venter (October 17, 2013). Life at the Speed of Light: From the Double Helix to the Dawn of Digital Life . New York, New York: Viking Adult . ISBN 9780670025404 . OCLC 834432832 .
- Jump up^ “Press Releases The Richard Dimbleby Lecture 2007: Dr J Craig Venter – A DNA Driven World” . BBC . 2007-12-05 . Retrieved 1 February 2017 .
- Jump up^ TED | talks | Craig Venter: On the verge of customizing synthetic life (video)
- Jump up^ “Cracking the Code of Life: Meet the Decoders” . NOVA . Retrieved 1 February 2017 .
- Jump up^ “Cracking the Code of Life: The Race to Decode Human DNA (2001)” . Bioethics Research Library . Retrieved 1 February 2017 .
- Jump up^ Shreeve, James. “Craig Venter’s Epic Voyage to Redefine the Origin of Species,” Wired , August 2004. Accessed June 7, 2007.
- Jump up^ “The Journey of the Sorcerer”, The Economist , December 4, 2004.
- Jump up^ First individual person’s genome decoded- Cosmos Magazine. September 4, 2007.
- Jump up^ Geneticists one compares or customizing artificial life- Cosmos Magazine. October 8, 2007.
- Jump up^ Douthat, Ross. “The God of Small Things,” The Atlantic , Jan / Feb 2007.
- Jump up^ Warren, Jessica. April 30: Genome scientist to speak at COMMENCEMENT,The Daily Free Press, April 28, 2004. Accessed August 2, 2008.
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- Jump up^ “The Top 10 Everything Or 2008” . Time . November 3, 2008 . Retrieved April 30, 2010 .
- Jump up^http://www.ted.com/talks/lang/eng/craig_venter_unveils_synthetic_life.html
- Jump up^ Will Cockrell (May 20, 2011). “Survival Skills: Craig Venter” . Men’s Journal.
- Jump up^ http://www.brandeis.edu/rosenstiel/gabbayaward/past.html
- Jump up^ “Biotechnology Heritage Award” . Chemical Heritage Foundation . Retrieved 5 February 2014 .
- Jump up^ Strickland, Debbie (13 June 2001). “Genomic Leaders Receive 2001 Biotechnology Heritage Award” . BIO . Retrieved 5 February 2014 .
- Jump up^ Aufrett, Sarah. “ASU Celebrates Spring Graduates”,ASU Insight, May 11, 2007. Accessed June 7, 2007.
- Jump up^ “Honorary degrees Awarded to Browne, Venter and Rausing”,Imperial College, October 24, 2007. Accessed May 21, 2010.
- Jump up^ “J. Craig Venter, Ph.D. Receives Double Helix Medal from Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory” . PR Newswire . 12 November 2008 . Retrieved 6 February 2014 .
- Jump up^ “Bellevue-based foundation awards $ 100,000 prize for genomic research” . Bellevue Reporter . 9 September 2008 . Retrieved 6 February 2014 .
- Jump up^ “Eni Award 2008: the Winners are Announced” . ENI. 18 February 2008 . Retrieved 6 February 2014 .
- Jump up^ Piercey, Judy (12 October 2009). “Alumnus J. Craig Venter Awarded National Medal of Science” . This Week at UCSD . Retrieved 6 February 2014 .
- Jump up^ http://www.clarkson.edu/news/view.php?id=2455
- Jump up^ Welch-Donahue, Jaime. “Benjamin Rush Scholars to Honor Dr. J. Craig Venter on April 21” . Retrieved 21 April 2011 .
- Jump up^ “2011 Dickson Prize Winner” . University of Pittsburgh . Retrieved 6 February 2014 .