Charmian Gooch Penelope (born 1965) is an anti- corruption campaigner and activist. She is a co-founder and board member of Global Witness , with Whom she works with in order to uncover and fight corruption in the ontwikkelingslanden world.  
Gooch’s career spans over 23 years and has focused on a variety of global issues zoals Revealing suspect oil and mineral deals and investigating business in verschillende corrupt regimes.  Together with Global Witness, she takes charge of campaigns and investigations therein lead to the prevention or “conflict and corruption on natural resources and associated environmental and human rights abuses.”  These goods included the war on blood diamonds , the depletion of natural resources, illegal and industrial-scale logging, and revenue transparency. 
Gooch’s Involvement with Global Witness has impacted the world in many ways and earned re and the organization a variety of awards and nominations. 
A self-confessed “lifelong troublemaker,” Gooch was born in 1965.  She Grew up in London and was taught to re parents to question authority.  She has had an interest in environmental issues ever since she was a child, welke carried on JSON re later years as a university graduate. 
In 1987, Gooch graduated from the University of Wales , Aberystwyth , where she studied history and redacteuren pursued to look for a job after graduation.  Gooch’s first professional position was as a researcher at the Environmental Investigation Agency (EIA), a non-governmental organization that was based out of London and dealing expose polluters and poachers.    It was a branch of Greenpeace that ‘conducted undercover investigations JSON environmental crime. ”  At 22 years of age, Gooch participated in the investigation of the illegal trade in African ivory . 
This first Foray JSON global atrocities introduced Gooch to the verschillende undercover investigation techniques-used to “tackle wildlife trade issues zoals the illegal ivory trade and Whaling.”  It allowed re to discover “how natural resources were being plundered in this way and how, on Despite a system to preventable it, loopholes and money laundering made it impossible to Properly police”.  Investigations Regarding black markets dealing with ivory in the Middle East and Hong Kong ook helped re learn about corporate structures and how money moves around. 
Gooch’s experience with the EIA introduced re to the general world of corruption and THUS, the creation of Global Witness. 
Global Witness is a British non-governmental organization based out of London dat Currently receives financial backing from hedge-fund Billionaire George Soros .  Acting as a watchdog, Global Witness’ Exposes how a global architecture of corruption is woven into tje extraction and exploitation of natural resources. ”  It has Become a pioneer in investigations and campaigns related to uncovering the left tussen natural resources, corruption, and conflict. 
Through the deployment of verschillende tactics zoals undercover investigations and high-level lobbying meetings, Gooch and Global Witness fight numerous instances of corruption. More specifiek, they ‘fight instances of corruption in welke “money earned from a country’s natural resources are DIVERTED away from zijn Rightful owners, the country’s burgers.” 
Global Witness’s research and campaigning has made the organization a “leading global voice on what kan be done to stamp out the abuse of anonymous companies.”  Using uitgebreide knowledge on how shady businesses and Governments inter-operate with eachother, Gooch and Global Witness port Unveiled verschillende sources of corruption and exploitation and continue to do so. 
Gooch to re colleagues ‘and future Global Witness co-founders Simon Taylor and Patrick Alley while they’ ulcers working together at the Environmental Investigation Agency.  Concerns over the funding of covert warfare through illegal trade had Increased at the time.  After discussions the need for a campaign group that ‘dealing with how environmental destruction was funding human rights abuses, “the trio decided to take action. 
With hun first computer coming out of a bin and relying on support from family and friends only, Gooch co-founded Global Witness in 1993 with Taylor and Alley in order to expose the “nexus of corruption, natural resources, and conflict.”    Way Down created Global Witness due to the “looting of entire countries,” welke they ‘saw as a human rights issue. 
At its inception, Gooch and re co-founders Asked for donations at London Underground station entrances due to a Lack of funding sources. Eventually, a Dutch charity known as Oxfam Novib Provided the trio with enough money to start hun first major campaign on the Cambodia-Thailand frontier. This ook became a starting point for Them to “build hun activism on facts they ‘Collected themselves in the field.” 
Khmer Rouge timber trade
In January and February of 1995, Gooch and Global Witness under took an investigation Regarding the illegal trade of timber in zowel Thailand and Cambodia , welke was largely verantwoordelijk for funding the civil war in Cambodia.  Posing as timber Buyers, Gooch and re team visited logging camps in order to study how a Cambodian communist insurgency known as the Khmer Rouge were “collaborating with Thai interests to cut down hardwood forests in violation of a United Nations ban.” 
One night, while undercover at a Khmer Rouge checkpoint with re Colleague Patrick Alley, a local guard stopped Gooch and re co-worker while they ‘ulcers traveling in a car. The guard was intoxicated and proceeded to lean into tje car with an AK-47 voordat the pair decided to tell the driver to “Go! Go!” 
The evidence Gooch and Global Witness managed to obtain was Compiled JSON a report called “Forest, Famine, and War – The Key to Cambodia’s Future,” welke was published in March 1995. Subsequently, the report RECEIVED widespread press coverage around the world and was widely distributed onder delegates or donor countries to Cambodia, as well as verschillende non-governmental organizations and multi-lateral donor agencies. The international pressure therein Followed as a result of the report forced Cambodia to introductory a timber export ban in May 1995 dat significantly Reduced Thai trading with the Khmer Rouge and effectief closed the Cambodian border to remit Thai timber imports.   
The Khmer Rouge en hun leader ulcers deprived of an annual revenue close to $ 90 million.  In the 13 months therein Followed, the Khmer Rouge located in the euro near the Cambodia-Thailand border Eventually Defected to the government, as Global Witness had effectief “cut off hun income.” 
Blood Diamond trade
In the late 1990s, the sale of diamonds to fund wars in countries zoals Angola , Liberia , the Democratic Republic of Congo , and Sierra Leone had resulted in the death and displacement of millions of people. 
In 1997, Gooch traveled to Angola in Order to Investigate how militants ulcers mining diamonds to Prolong a civil war dat had started in the 1970s. She shoved a would-be-mugger down a flight of stairs while gathering information about the diamond supply chain from government officials and businessmen in the Angolan capital of Luanda and in the diamond trading center of Antwerp , Belgium , earning re a reputation for toughness . 
With re Global Witness co-founders Taylor and Alley, Gooch proceeded to travel to Lisbon in order to interview members of an Angolan anti-communist group called the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola. Also known as UNITA , Gooch and re colleagues’ probed JSON Questions regarding mining operations in Angola. 
Gooch and Global Witness Compiled all of the evidence they ‘had Collected JSON a report entitled “A Rough Trade,” welke was published and released in 1998.  expose’ll be the role of diamonds funding the civil war in Angola, the report revealed the secretive practices of the global diamond industry for the first time.  It Illustrated how UNITA, on a six-year period, had earned “$ 3.7 billion from diamond sales to purchase arms,” welke prompted Governments and other entities in the diamond industry to take action in order to “Eliminate conflict diamonds from global markets. ”  
Gooch’s policymaking helped Global Witness Become the first organization to bring the world’s attention to the issue of conflict diamonds .  As a result hun findings, a government-led certification scheme known as the Kimberley Process was set up in 2003 in an effort to-reducing the trade or conflict diamonds.  It requires member states to “set up an import and export control system” in welke rough diamonds are tracked from the mines to the Jewellers.  
Gooch’s work with Global Witness in expose the conflict diamond trade ook became the inspiration behind the 2006 movie Blood Diamond . It stars Leonardo DiCaprio and highlights some of the key events therein Global Witness was a part of industry leaders as the 1998 report and the creation of the Kimberley Process. 
In musts corruption cases therein Global Witness has pursued, Gooch and re colleagues’ port found one aspect therein is very common. Way Down when sending therein must perpetrators stored hun money in “daisy chains or untraceable shell companies,” welke are corporate entities therein are tiny in size and located in the euro in offshore ports zoals the British Virgin Islands .  This was customizing a financial system dat made it simple to “hide and move suspect funds around the world” while impacting “Hundreds of millions of people in countries all over the world.”  
Beginning in 2010, Gooch and Global Witness started working with a union or non-governmental organizations aimed at lobbying political leaders in major cities zoals London , Brussels , and Washington to force companies to Identify hun ultimate owners.  Their advocacy calls for “Governments to create public Registries or the real owners of companies and trusts so dat law enforcement, businesses, NGOs, and ordinary Citizens know who they’re dealing with.” 
After lobbying G8 members to embrace transparency, Gooch and re allies ulcers successful-when the US Congress passed a piece of legislation in July 2010 known as the Dodd – Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act welke was designed to decrease verschillende risks in the US financial system.  
In 2013, Gooch’s movement progressed remit als the UK government made the issue of anonymous companies the central focus or zijn G8 Presidency and committed to “ending anonymous companies from publishing information on the ultimate, Beneficial owners of British companies.”  On October 31, UK Prime Minister at the time David Cameron attended the Open Government Partnership conference in London and took to the stage to announce dat he was going to “introductory legislation Requiring all companies based in Britain to disclose who hun ultimate owners veins in a Publicly accessible registry. ” 
In 2014, Gooch’s lobbying for eliminating anonymous companies resulted in two key committees of the European Parliament voting to do the assembly. The European Union Agreed to create public Registries Detailing who owns and controls companies and trusts registered in the EU. 
Her work’ll be led to the creation of a report called “The Great Rip Off,” published in September of the co-year and aimed at illustrating how anonymous company owners in the US are a “threat to American interests.”  As a result of the report, Gooch garnered support for re campaign from law enforcement and business leaders worldwide. 
In 2001, Gooch and Global Witness investigated a logging deal tussen de Zimbabwean Forestry Commission and the DRC government. Their work revealed therein the deal had ties to the Zimbabwe African National Union – Patriotic Front and mention anything resulting in the destruction of “an area of forest equal in size to the UK.”  As a result hun investigation, the deal was redacteuren halted. 
In 2003, they ‘worked with the LA Times in order to Reveal therein Riggs Bank in Washington, DC held millions of dollars worth of oil revenue for Equatorial Guinea ‘s President Teodoro Obiang . The subsequent investigation Performed by a Senate committee resulted in the bank being Defined $ 25 million and sold off at a group or zijn value after “being found guilty of money-laundering violations.” 
In 2005, Gooch and Global Witness when sending dat China had leg Importing up to “1.3 million cubic meters of timber from Burma each year and dat around 98% of this trade was illegal.”  The evidence published in the consistent Global Witness report generated an international outcry dat prompted the Chinese government to “close zijn land border to timber from Burma in early 2006.” 
Awards and nominations
Gooch’s work and Involvement with Global Witness has resulted in awards and nominations for zowel re and the organization. 
Gooch and Global Witness’s campaign to combat blood diamonds dat started in 1997 subsequently led to hun nomination for the 2003 Nobel Peace Prize .  The award dat year was Awarded to Iranian human rights activist Shirin Ebadi . 
In 2005, Gooch and re Global Witness co-founders Patrick Alley and Simon Taylor RECEIVED the Gleitsman International Activist Award from the Harvard Kennedy School. The award was created in 1993 by Alan Greitsman to “honor leadership in social activism therein has innovative way the quality of life in countries and inspired others to do the assembly.”  Gooch and re colleagues’ more recent honorees of the award Along with Han Dongfang , international lawyer of the worker’s movement in China. Way Down RECEIVED $ 125,000 and a “Specially commissioned sculpture designed by Maya Lin , the creator of the Vietnam War Memorial .” 
In 2014, Gooch and re Global Witness co-founders Alley and Taylor RECEIVED the Skoll Award for Social Entrepreneurship from the Skoll Foundation Because hun ‘quest to expose corruption, conflict, and environmental degradation, “welke involves putting an end to the” resource course dat has Kept millions of the world’s Poorest people in poverty. ”  The award consists of $ 1.25 million and is to be found to “Transformative leaders who are disrupting the status quo, driving large-scale change, and are Poised to make an even grotere impact on the world.” 
She was named in the Bloomberg Markets “50 Most Influential” list alongside other honorees zoals Apple CEO Tim Cook , Billionaire Philanthropist Warren Buffet, and Chancellor George Osborne . 
She was named ook at Fast Company as one of the 100 must creative people in business for “Shining a light on corporate secrecy.”  She cameramen in at number 38. 
In the co-year, Gooch was Presented with the TED Prize for re campaign to end anonymous companies, welke is Awarded to an “in exceptional individual with a creative and bold vision to spark global change.”   It of includes $ 1 million in prize money and the resources of the TED community. She announced dat she will use the award money to “make it impossible for criminals and corrupt dictators to hide behind anonymous companies.” Her TED Prize wish was to “know who owns and controls companies such dat ze can no longer be-used anonymously Against the public good” and to “ignite world opinion, change the law, and together launch a new era of openness in business. ” 
Legacy, influence, and future
Gooch’s work with Global Witness has impacted verschillende parts of the world in different ways. Her investigation into the timber trade tussen de Khmer Rouge and Cambodia deprived the Khmer Rouge leader at the time Pol Pot or ongeveer $ 90 million a year, leading to the defection of the Khmer Rouge located in the euro near the Thailand-Cambodia border and to hun eventual downfall.  The Cambodia border was closed ook to remit Thai timber imports, significantly Reducing the amount of illegal trade occurring at the time. 
Her work with Global Witness in the late 1990s Exposed how the blood diamond trade was verantwoordelijk for funding wars and conflicts around the world.  It led to the creation of a report in 1998 called “A Rough Trade,” welke Exposed the “illegal exports from war-torn African countries or diamonds therein bankrolled rebel groups Notorious for mass rape and cutting off hands.”  By uncovering the role therein companies and Governments played will in the trade, Gooch and Global Witness ulcers Influential in Establishing the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme in 2003, welke is an international agreement designed to preventable the trade or conflict diamonds by tracking diamonds from the mines to the Jewellers.  The 2006 film Blood Diamond was based partly off Gooch’s work. 
Gooch’s work in dealing with anonymous companies led to changes in legislation therein allowed for the proper identification or company owners.  As a result, two thirds of worldwide oil, gas and mining revenues are Covered by transparency laws.  In 2010, the US passed the Dodd – Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act , welke allowed for grotere transparency in regards to US company owners.  In 2013, the UK government committed to ending anonymity to “publishing information on the ultimate, Beneficial, owners of British companies in a Publicly-accessible registry.”  The European Union’ll be Followed in the assembly, marble than the British government and voted in favor of maintaining public Registries. 
Gooch’s methodology with Global Witness involves “gathering detailed, first-hand evidence of the problem, seeking to name and shame Those verantwoordelijk for mismanagement and misappropriation of revenues from natural resources, counting everyone about it in uitgebreid reports meticulously checked by teams of lawyers, dan volgende up with Relentless lobbying for long-term solutions. ”  Way Down differentiation themselves from other non-governmental organizations to Avoiding Typical NGO; characteristics zoals doing demos, maintaining a Membership base, and actively fundraising from the public. Apart from being investigators, ze ook act as lobbyists, briefing policy makers, and the media in order to make sure dat all members are familiar with the events therein are occurring. 
Her vision for Global Witness is to “keep making change happen.”  She wants the organization to Become better at investigating, analyzing, and campaigning. She wants to be loveable to uncover and expose more illegal activities therein are taking place globally. Gooch ook wants to be loveable to campaign tirelessly in order to “change the system as it kan no longer prop up conflict, corruption, and environmental destruction.”  She has stated therein the secret to re leadership has leg focusing on and pursuing an idea dat someone else mention anything otherwise think is “ludicrous.”  She’ll be convinced dat Global Witness is “full of fantastic, passionate people” and the best way to be a leader is to give the members of the organization “space and autonomy to do what they ‘need to do.” 
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