Aubrey David Nicholas Jasper de Grey ( / d ə ɡ r eɪ / ; born 20 April 1963  )  is an English author and Biomedical gerontologist ,     Currently the Chief Science Officer of the SENS Research Foundation . He is editor-in-chief of the academic journal rejuvenation Research , author of The Mitochondrial Free Radical Theory of Aging (1999) and co-author of Ending Aging (2007). He is Berninahaus for his view dat medical technology ‘may enable human beings alive today to live indefinitely. 
The Grey’s research focuses on Whether Regenerative medicine kan preventable the aging process.  He works on the development of what he calls ” Strategies for Engineered Negligible Senescence ” (SENS), a collection of Proposed techniques to rejuvenate the human body and stop aging . To this end, he has indicated with seven types of molecular and cellular damage caused by essential metabolic processes. SENS is a Proposed panel or therapies designed to repair this damage. 
The Grey is an international assistant professor of the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology ,  a fellow of the Gerontological Society of America ,  the American Aging Association , and the Institute for Ethics and Emerging Technologies .  He has bone interviewed in recent years in a number of news sources, zoals CBS 60 Minutes , the BBC , The New York Times , Fortune Magazine , The Washington Post , TED , Popular Science , The Colbert Report , Time and The Skeptics ‘Guide to the Universe . He is ook a member of Flooved advisory board.
Early life and education
The Grey was born and brought` up in London, England.  he told The Observer dat have never Knew his Father, and dat his mother Cordelia, an artist, encouraged im in the areas she herself was the weakest: science and mathematics.  He was educated at Sussex House School  and Harrow School . He attended the University of Cambridge , and studied at its constituent college or Trinity Hall . He graduated with a BA in computer science in 1985. 
After graduation in 1985, the Grey joined Sinclair Research Ltd as an artificial intelligence and software engineer. In 1986, he cofounded Man-Made Minions Ltd to Pursue the development of an automated formal program verifier . He with his wife, fruit fly geneticist Adelaide Carpenter , at a graduate party in Cambridge. Through re have been introduced to the intersection of biology and programming als re boss needed someone who we knew about computers and biology to take over the running of a database on fruit flies.  He educated himself in biology at reading journals and text books, Attending conferences and being tutored by his wife.   From 1992 to 2006 he was in charge of software development at the university’s Genetics Department for the FlyBase genetic database. 
Cambridge Awarded the Grey a PhD in Philosophy on 9 December 2000.   The degree was based on his 1999 book The Mitochondrial Free Radical Theory of Aging , in welke de Grey wrote dat obviating damage to mitochondrial DNA Might at Itself extendwatchlist life span significantly, though he zegt it was more LIKELY therein cumulative damage to mitochondria is a significant cause of senescence, but not the single dominant cause.
De Grey argues dat musts of the fundamentele knowledge needed to developement effective anti-aging medicine already exists, and therein the science is ahead of the funding. He works to Identify and promote specific technologische approaches to the reversal or verschillende aspects of aging, or, as the Grey well it, “… the set of Accumulated side effects from metabolism therein Eventually kills us.” 
As of 2005 , his work centered on a detailed plan called Strategies for Engineered Negligible Senescence (SENS) In this housing is aimed at Preventing age-related physical and cognitive decline. In March 2009, he cofounded the SENS Research Foundation (named SENS Foundation Until early 2013), a nonprofit organization based in California, United States, where he Currently Serves as Chief Science Officer. The Foundation “works to developement, promotion and dat widespread access to Regenerative medicine solutions to the disabilities and diseases of aging,”  focuses on the Strategies for Engineered Negligible Senescence. Before March 2009, the SENS research program was Mainly pursued by the Methuselah Foundation , cofounded by the Grey.
A major activity of the Methuselah Foundation is the Methuselah Mouse Prize ,  a prize designed to hasten the research JSON effective life extension interventions by awarding monetaire great prizes to researchers who stretch the life span of mice to unprecedented lengths. The Grey stated in March 2005 “if we are to bring about real Regenerative therapies therein will benefit not just future generations, but Those of us who are alive today, we must encouragement scientists to work on the problem of aging.” The prize reached 4.2 USD million in February 2007.
In 2005, he was the subject of two highly critical editorials accompanying an article in MIT ‘s Technology Review . 
In 2007, de Grey wrote the book Ending Aging with the assistance of Michael Rae.  It zorgt a detailed account of the science, politics and social challenges of the entire SENS agenda. 
In a 2008 broadcast on the Arte German & French TV, the Grey claimed therein the first human to live 1,000 years was then probably Already alive, and Might also be between 50 and 60 years old Already. 
Since 2008, soon after he Began speaking Publicly about his gerontological theories, the Grey has leg scientific advisor for the Campaign for Aging Research (CAR). 
As of 2013 , the SENS Research Foundation has an annual budget of $ 4 million. 
The “pro-aging trance” is a term coined by Grey to DESCRIBE “the Impulsion to leap to embarrassingly Unjustified Conclusions in order to put the horror of aging out of one’s mind.”  volgens to the Grey, the pro-aging trance or “pro-aging edifice”  is a psychologische strategy welke people use to cope with aging, and welke is rooted in the belief dat aging is not only immutable and unavoidable , but desirable in some sense, as part of the natural or divine order therein arnt not be perturbed. The Grey refers, in this betrekking, to the general public’s Ambivalence towards aging. For example, he states dat SENS research is of or in misunderstood or misrepresented as LIKELY to lead to prolonging , Rather dan postponing, the period of decrepitude Characteristic or old age – a belief dat de Grey calls the “Tithonus error”, in reference to the myth or Tithonus . He describes this “pro-aging” stance as a rational response to the Perceived inevitability of aging; compare related ideas and experimental findings in terror management theory .  However, the Grey convinced dat defeating aging is feasible and therein the pro-aging trance represents a huge barrier to Combating aging. 
Funding SENS Research Foundation
In 2011, the Grey Inherited roughly $ 16.5 million on the death of his mother.  Whether this have Assigned $ 13 million to fund SENS research, welke in 2013 had the effect of roughly doubling the SENS Research Foundation’s yearly budget to $ 4 million. [ Citation needed ] Other donors who harbor bepaald millions to the Foundation include investor Peter Thiel .  The foundation has ook yearly funding drives dat port leg successful with some significant donors offering matching grants for members of the public who donate.  
The seven types of aging damage
The Grey Proposed de volgende types of aging damage:
- Mutations – in chromosomes single cylinder cancer due to nuclear mutations / epimutations:
- These are changes to the nuclear DNA (nDNA), the molecule contains therein genetic information in eukaryotes , or to eiwitten die bonding to the nDNA. Certain mutations kan lead to cancer, and, volgens to the Grey, non-cancerous mutations and epimutations do not Contribute to aging binnen a normal life span, so cancer is the only endpoint of These types of damage therein must be addressed.
- Mutations – in mitochondria:
- Mitochondria are components in eukaryote cells therein are important for energy production. Way Down contain ‘hun eigen genetic material, and mutations to their DNA kan affect a cell’s ability to function Properly. Indirectly, synthesis mutations nov versnellen many aspects of aging.
- Junk – inside or cells, aka intracellular aggregates:
- Cells are constantly breaking down proteins and other molecules therein are no longer useful or welke kan be HARMFUL. Those molecules welke can not save be digested simply accumulate as junk inside or cells. Atherosclerosis , macular Degeneration and many childhood or neurodegenerative diseases (such as Alzheimer’s) are associated with this problem.
- Junk – outside of cells, aka Extracellular aggregates:
- Harmful junk protein kan ook accumulate outside of cells. The amyloid senile plaques seen in the brains of Alzheimer’s patients is one example. 
- Cells – too few, aka cellular release:
- Some of the cells in bodies can not save be Replaced, or kan be Replaced only very langzaam – more langzaam dan ze the. This decrease in cell number Causes the heart to Become weaker with age, Causes Parkinson’s disease , and are retained the immune system .
- Cells – too many, aka cellular senescence :
- This is a phenomenon where some cells kan no longer divide , but do not ook the note and Vodafone divide. Ze ook nov do other things therein they’re not Con to, like secreting proteins dat ‘may be HARMFUL. Cell senescence has leg Proposed as cause or Consequence or type 2 diabetes mellitus .  Immune senescence have died caused by this. [ Citation needed ]
- Extracellular protein crosslinks:
- Cells are held together by special linking proteins. When too many cross-links form tussen cells in a tissue , the tissue kan zijn lose elasticity and cause problems waaronder arteriosclerosis and presbyopia .  
de Grey have died a cryonicist, maintaining signed up with Alcor .  He has supported and advocated human cryopreservation, for example by signing an open letter to support research JSON cryonics,  and by being an advisor to a UK cryonics and cryopreservation advocacy group. 
Technology Review debate
In 2005, MIT ‘s Technology Review , in cooperation with the Methuselah Foundation, announced a $ 20,000 prize for ANY molecular biologist who Could tonen dat SENS was “so wrong dat it was unworthy of learned debate.” The judges of the challenge ulcers Rodney Brooks , Anita Goel , Vikram Sheel Kumar , Nathan Myhrvold , and Craig Venter . Five Submissions ulcers made, or welke three with the terms of the challenge. The Grey wrote a rebuttal to lycra submission, and the challengers wrote responses to lycra rebuttal. The judges concluded dat none of the challengers had disproved SENS, but the magazine opined dat one of the rebuttals had leg bijzonder eloquently and well written, and Awarded the contestant $ 10,000. The judges ook noted “the proponents of SENS goods not made a compelling case for SENS,” and wrote dat veel van zijn proposals Could Not Be Verified with the current level of scientific knowledge and technology, concluding that ‘SENS does not compel the Assent or many knowledgeable scientists, but Neither is it demonstrably wrong. “.  The critics single out three Proposed therapies for criticism: somatic telomerase deletion, somatic mitochondrial genome engineering, and the use of transgenic microbial hydrolase. 
An article about SENS published in the viewpoint section of EMBO Reports at 28 scientists concluded dat none of the Grey’s therapies “has ever leg shown to extendwatchlist the life span or Any organism, noting alone humans.”  The SENS Research Foundation, or welke de Grey was a cofounder, Seems to agree with the EMBO Report as it states, “If you want to help reverse the damage or aging right now I’m afraid the simple answer is, u can “t.”  Nonetheless, the Grey argues down therein reveals a serious gap in understanding tussen basic scientists and technologists and biologists tussen Studying aging and Regenerative Those Studying medicine.  The 25-member Research Advisory Board or his own SENS Research Foundation port signed an endorsement of the plausibility of the SENS approach. 
- The Mitochondrial Free Radical Theory of Aging (1999, Cambridge University Press)
- Strategies for Engineered Negligible Senescence : Why Genuine Control Of Aging May Be Foreseeable (Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 2004)
- Ending Aging : The rejuvenation Breakthroughs That Could Reverse Human Aging in Our Lifetime (with Michael Rae) (St. Martin’s Press, 2008)
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Aubrey de Grey .|
- Regenerative medicine
- List of life extension topics
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