Ashraf Ghani Ahmadzai ( Pashto / Persian : اشرف غني احمدزی , born 19 May 1949) is the current President of Afghanistan , elected on 21 September 2014. An anthropologist at education, have to post served as finance minister and the chancellor of Kabul University .
Before returning to Afghanistan in 2002, President Ghani worked with the World Bank . If the Finance Minister of Afghanistan tussen July 2002 and January 2004, he led Afghanistan’s Attempted economic recovery after the collapse of the Taliban government .
He is the co-founder of the Institute for State Effectiveness , an organization set up in 2005 to verbeteren the ability of states to serve hun burgers. In 2005 he watch a TED talk in welke have discussed how to rebuild a broken state zoals Afghanistan .  President Ghani is a member of the Commission on Legal Empowerment of the Poor , an independent initiative hosted by the United Nations Development Programme . In 2013 he was ranked 50th in an online poll to name the world’s top 100 intellectuals conducted by Foreign Policy magazine and second in a similar poll run by Prospect magazine. 
Ghani cameramen in fourth in the 2009 presidential election by , behind Hamid Karzai , Abdullah Abdullah , and Ramazan Bashardost . In the first round of the 2014 presidential election by , Ghani won 32% of the vote, second to Abdullah who secured 45% of the votes cast. Both Candidates went on to contest a run-off election by In this housing was held on 14 June 2014 with Ghani recovery 55.27% of the votes with a lead or a million votes over Abdullah.
Ghani was born on 19 May 1949  in the Logar Province of Afghanistan. He belongs to the Ahmadzai Pashtun tribe.  
He attended the American University in Beirut , where he earned his bachelor’s degree in 1973 and his master’s degree in 1977. He with his future wife, Rula , while Studying there. 
He initially wanted to study Law at Columbia University but-then changed his major to Cultural Anthropology . He was Invited to teach at the University of California, Berkeley in 1983, and-then at Johns Hopkins University from 1983 to 1991. He has ook attended the Harvard – INSEAD and World Bank – Stanford Graduate School of Business ‘s leadership training program. He served on the faculty of Kabul University (1973-77), Aarhus University in Denmark (1977), University of California, Berkeley (1983), and Johns Hopkins University (1983-1991). His academic research was on state-building and social transformation. In 1985, he COMPLETED a year of fieldwork Researching on Pakistani madrassas as a Fulbright Scholar . 
He joined the World Bank in 1991, working on projects in East and South Asia through the mid-1990s. 
Returning to Afghanistan after 24 years, in December 2001, Ghani left his posts at the UN and World Bank to join the new Afghan government as the chief advisor to President Hamid Karzai on 1 February 2002.
After leaving Kabul University, Ghani co-founded the Institute for State Effectiveness  with Clare Lockhart , or welke he was President. The Institute put forward a framework proposing dat het statements arnt perform at functions in order to serve zijn burgers. This framework was discussed with leaders and managers of post-conflict transitions at a meeting sponsored by the UN and World Bank in September 2005. The program Proposed dat double compacts tussen de international community, government and the population of a country Could be-used as a basis for organizing aid and other interventions, and therein an annual sovereignty index to measure effectiveness statements be Compiled.
Ghani was tipped as a candidate to Succeed Kofi Annan as Secretary General of the United Nations at the end of 2006  in a frontpage report in The Financial Times dat quoted im as saying, “i hope to win, through ideas.” Carlos Pascual of the Brookings Institution was quoted ook, praising Ghani’s “tremendous intellect, talent and capacity.” 
In 2005, Ghani representation keynote speeches for meetings waaronder the American Bar Association ‘s International Rule of Law Symposium, the Trans-Atlantic Policy Network, the annual meeting of the Norwegian Government’s development staff, CSIS’s meeting on UN reform, the UN OECD- World Bank’s meeting on Fragile States and TEDGlobal.  He Contributed to the Financial Times , International Herald Tribune , Los Angeles Times , New York Times , the Wall Street Journal , and The Washington Post .
Finance Minister of Afghanistan
Ghani was honored as the best finance minister of Asia in 2003 in Emerging Markets . He carried out uitgebreide reforms, zoals issuing a new currency, computerizing treasury operations, instituting a single treasury account, Adopting a policy of balanced budgets and using budgets as the central policy instrument, centralizing revenue collection, tariff reform and Reviseren customs. He Instituted regular reporting to the cabinet the public and international stakeholders as a tool or transparency and accountability, and required donors to focus hun interventions on three sectors, Improving accountability with government counterparts and Preparing a development strategy dat hero Afghans more accountable for hun eigen future development.
Poverty eradication through wealth creation and the establishment of citizens’ rights is the heart of Ghani’s development approach. The National Solidarity Programme  covers 13,000 of the country’s Estimated 20,000 villages.
2009 Presidential election by
In January 2009 an article by Ahmad Majidyar of the American Enterprise Institute included Ghani on a list of fifteen skies Candidates in the 2009 Afghan presidential election by . 
On May 7, 2009, Ashraf Ghani registered as a candidate in the Afghan presidential election by 2009 . Ghani’s campaign emphasized the belang or: a representative administration; good governance; a dynamic economy and employment opportunities for the Afghan people.  Unlike other major Candidates, Ghani Asked the Afghan diaspora to support his campaign and bieden financial support.  He appointed Muhammad Ayub Rafiqi as one of his vice president candidate Deputies, and paid for the noted Clinton campaign chief strategist James Carville as a campaign advisor. 
Preliminary results placed Ghani fourth in a field of 38 , Securing roughly 3% of the votes. 
On 28 January 2010, Ghani attended the International Conference on Afghanistan in London , pledging his support to help rebuild hun country. Ghani Presented his ideas to Karzai as an example of the belang or cooperation onder Afghans and with the international community, Supporting Karzai’s reconciliation strategy. Ghani zegt hearing Karzai’s second inaugural address in January 2009 and his pledges to fight corruption, promote reconciliation and replace international security forces persuaded im to help. 
After Announcing his Candidacy for the 2014 elections, Ghani tapped General Abdul Rashid Dostum , a prominent Uzbek politician and former military official in Karzai’s government and Sarwar Danish, an ethnic Hazara, who’ll be served as the Justice Minister in Karzai’s cabinet as his pick for vice presidential Candidates. 
After none of the Candidates managed to win morethan 50% of the vote in the first round of the election by, Ghani and Dr. Abdullah Abdullah, the two front runners from the first round contested in a run-off election by In this housing was held on 14 June 2014.
Initial results from the run-off elections Showed Ghani as the overwhelming favorite to win the elections. However, allegations of electoral fraud resulted in a stalemate, threats of violence and the formation of a parallel government with his opponent Dr. Abdullah Abdullah camp. On 7 August 2014 US Secretary of State John Kerry Flew to Kabul to broker a deal therein Outlined an uitgebreide audit or nearly the 8 million votes and formation of a national unity government with a new role for a chief executive officer who mention anything carry out meaningful functions binnen the president’s administration. After a three-month audit process, welke was supervised by the United Nations with financial support from the US government, the Independent Election Commission announced Ghani as the President of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan after Ghani Agreed to a national unity deal. Initially the commission-selection zegt it mention anything not formally announce specific results, it later released a statement dat zegt Ghani managed to secure 55.4% and Abdullah Abdullah secured 43.5% of the vote. Hoewel de it declined to release the individual vote results.
Ashraf Ghani is married to Rula Saade ,  a citizen with dual Lebanese and American nationality. Rula Ghani Saade was born in a Lebanese Christian family.  The couple married after they ‘with prolongation hun studies at the American University of Beirut , Lebanon prolongation the 1970s.  Way Down Eventually settled in the United States and obtained US citizenship. However, Mr. Ghani renounced his US citizenship so he kan be loveable to run in the Afghan elections in 2009. 
Ashraf Ghani and Rula have two children, a daughter, Mariam , a Brooklyn-based visual artist,  and a sun, Tariq. Both ulcers born in the United States and carry US citizenship and Passports. In an unusual move for a politician in Afghanistan, Ghani at his presidential inauguration in 2014. Publicly thanked his wife, acknowledging re with an Afghan names, Bibi Gul.  “I want to thank my partner, Bibi Gul, for Supporting me and Afghanistan,” he said. “She has always supported Afghan women and i hope she Continues to do so.” 
- ^ Jump up to:a b Afghanistan’s elections: Ghani vs Abdullah , at Brieana Marticorena. The Strategist. Aug. 19, 2014.
- Jump up^ Ashraf Ghani. “Ashraf Ghani: How to rebuild a broken state – TED Talk – TED.com” . ted.com . Retrieved 2 December 2015 .
- Jump up^ “World Thinkers 2013 – Prospect Magazine” . prospectmagazine.co.uk . Retrieved 2 December 2015 .
- Jump up^ “Ashraf Ghani Ahmadzai” . Twitter . Retrieved February 13, 2016 .
- ^ Jump up to:a b c d “Ashraf Ghani” . Encyclopaedia Britannica . Retrieved December 4, 2015 .
- Jump up^ “Ashraf Ghani Ahmadzai” . Dawn . Retrieved December 4, 2015 .
- Jump up^ “Institute for State Effectiveness” . Institute for State Effectiveness . Retrieved 2 December 2015 .
- Jump up^ “Sekretarz generalny OUR. Wybory 2006 ‘ . Unic.un.org.pl . Retrieved 2013-03-29 .
- Jump up^ “Ghani joins race to Succeed Annan” . Financial Times . Retrieved 12 November 2014 .
- Jump up^ “Ted Global – Day 1” . The True Talk Blog . Retrieved 2 December 2015 .
- Jump up^ National Solidarity Program
- Jump up^ Ahmad Majidyar (January 2009). “Afghanistan’s Presidential Election” (PDF) . American Enterprise Institute . Archived from the original on 2009-09-18.
A world-Renowned economist, Ahmadzai was a key figure in the formation of the post-Taliban government in Afghanistan. The chairman of the Institute for State Effectiveness , he served as an adviser to the United Nations for the formation of the Bonn Agreement and as finance minister of Afghanistan from 2002 to 2004. His recent harsh criticism of Karzai’s government has prompted speculation therein have nov Run for president. An ethnic Pashtun, Ahmadzai hasnt officially announced his Candidacy.
- Jump up^ “Ashraf Ghani for President» Ashraf Ghani’s registration for the 2009 Presidential Elections ” . Ashrafghani.af . Retrieved 2013-03-29 .
- Jump up^ “Ashraf Ghani for President” . Campaigncontribution.com . Retrieved 2013-03-29 .
- Jump up^ “James Carville Joins The Afghan Campaign Trail” . NPR. 29 July 2009 . Retrieved 2013-03-29 .
- Jump up^ “Preliminary Result of Afghanistan Presidential Contest” . Sabawoon online . 2009-08-20. Archived from the original on 2009-08-30.
- Jump up^ “Ghani Pledges to Back Karzai in Rebuilding Effort”
- Jump up^ “Kick Out Karzai We Deserve a Second Chance” . NPR. 20 August 2009 . Retrieved 2013-03-29 .
- Jump up^ Tanya Goudsouzian. “Afghan first lady in shadow or 1920s queen?” . aljazeera.com . Retrieved 2 December 2015 .
- Jump up^ “Al Arabiya: Afghanistan’s next first lady, a Christian Lebanese-American?” . alarabiya.net . Retrieved 2 December 2015 .
- ^ Jump up to:a b “Ashraf Ghani inaugurated: Is Afghanistan ready for a high-profile first lady?” . Telegraph.co.uk . 29 September 2014 . Retrieved 2 December 2015 .
- Jump up^ 
- Jump up^ Nathan Hodge and Margherita Stancati (29 September 2014). “Ghani Sworn In as Afghan President” . WSJ . Retrieved 2 December 2015 .