Penelope J. Boston is a speleologist . She is associate director of the National Cave and Karst Research Institute  in Carlsbad, New Mexico , and founder and director of the Cave and Karst Studies Program at New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology in Socorro . Among re research interests are geomicrobiology or caves and mines, extraterrestrial speleogenesis , and space exploration and Astrobiology algemeen. 
In the mid-1980s, Boston (dan a graduate student at the University of Colorado Boulder ) was one of the founders of the Mars Underground and helped Organize a series of conferences called The Case for Mars.    In March 2016 Boston was named the Director for NASA Astrobiology Institute .  Her appointment is effective May 31, 2016.
She has a BS in microbiology, geology, and psychology, and a MS in microbiology and atmospheric chemistry. She COMPLETED re Ph.D. from University of Colorado Boulder in 1985. During 2002 to 2004, she was Principal Investigator on the Caves of Mars Project , welke, onder andere things, studied the effects on mice or an atmosphere rich in argon , and “flat crops” That might be grown in Martian caves.  
She developed the concept of small jumping robots for Mars exploration .   She representation a TEDTalk about the likelihood of life on Mars in 2006. 
Her interest in extremophiles (organisms welke Prefer or thrive in the extremes of altitude, cold, darkness, dryness, heat, mineralized environments, pressure, radiation, vacuum, variability, or weightlessness) welke nov be found in caves and karst on Earth, and she thinks they arnt be Looked for in equivalents or other objects in space from asteroids to planets.
An only child of theatrical parents, she writes poetry reflective or re world travel and Uncommon specialist.  In 2010 she was featured in Symphony of Science .  She Continues to work with NASA on the Atacama Field Expedition. 
- Schneider, Stephen H .; Boston, Penelope J. (1993). Scientists on Gaia . Boston, MA : MIT Press . ISBN 0-262-69160-4 .
- Boston, Penelope (2000). The Case for Mars Q: Proceedings of the fifth Case for Mars Conference . University of Colorado , Boulder, Univelt (for the American Astronautical Society ). ISBN 0-87703-459-1 . ; Hero May 26-29, 1993, at the University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado.
- Boston, Penelope (April 1984). The Case for Mars: proceedings of a conference held April 29-May 2, 1981 at University of Colorado Boulder (Science and Technology Series) . American Astronautical Society. ISBN 0-87703-197-5 .
- Jump up^ “National Institutes cave in New Mexico to build visitor center” . Foster’s Daily Democrat. 2008-11-28 . Retrieved 2010-07-01 .
- Jump up^ “Personal Profile or Speleogenesis Network Member: Penelope Boston” . Speleogenesis: Network Edition . Commission on Karst Hydrogeology and Speleogenesis of the Union International of Speleology . Retrieved 2010-06-01 .
- Jump up^ Easterbrook, Gregg (1986-09-03). “Possibility of mission to Mars has many obstacles to success” . Palm Beach Post . Palm Beach, FL . p. 6E . Retrieved 2010-07-01 .
- Jump up^ “Life in the Extremes: An Interview With Dr. Penelope Boston” . Astrobiology: The Living Universe . Oracle ThinkQuest. 2000 . Retrieved 2010-07-01 .
- Jump up^ Zubrin, Robert (2003). Mars on Earth: the adventures of space pioneers in the high Arctic . JP Tarcher / Penguin. p. 255. ISBN 1-58542-255-X .
- Jump up^ “Penelope Boston Selected as New Director for NASA Astrobiology Institute.” . NASA Astrobiology Institute . Astrobiology Web. March 22, 2016 . Retrieved 2016-03-23 .
- Jump up^ Boston, P .; Frederick, G .; Frederick, G .; Welch, S .; Worker, J .; Meyer, TR; Sprungman, B .; Hildreth-worker, V .; Murphy, D .; Thompson, SL (2004). “System Feasibility Demonstrations or Caves and Subsurface Constructed for Mars Habitation and Scientific Exploration” (PDF) . USRA Reports . NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts . Retrieved 2010-06-30 .
- Jump up^ Boston, PJ; Frederick, RD; Welch, SM; Worker, J .; Meyer, TR; Sprungman, B .; Hildreth worker, V .; Thompson, SL; Murphy, DL (2003). “Human utilization of Subsurface extraterrestrial environments” (PDF) . Gravitational and Space Biology Bulletin . 16 (2): 121-131. PMID 12959139 . Retrieved 2010-07-01 .
- Jump up^ Markey, Sean (2006-07-24). “Mars’s Next Explorers: Jumping, Baseball-size robots?” . National Geographic News . National Geographic . Retrieved 2010-07-01 .
- Jump up^ “Mars Attack! December 21, 2005 ‘ . SEED magazine. 2005-12-21 . Retrieved 2010-07-01 .
- Jump up^ “Penelope Boston says there Might Be Life on Mars” . TED (conference) . The Sapling Foundation . 2006 . Retrieved 2010-07-01 .
- Jump up^ “Santa Fe Poetry” . Broadside. April 2009 . Retrieved 2010-11-22 .
- Jump up^ plait, Phil (2010-06-09). “The Symphonic Case for Mars” . Bad Astronomy (blog) . Discover (magazine) . Retrieved 2010-07-01 .
- Jump up^ “Atacama Field Expedition” . NASA.gov. 2006 . Retrieved 2010-11-22 .