Nicholas Herbert Stern, Baron Stern of Brentford , FRS , FBA (born 22 April 1946)  is a British economist and academic. He is IG Patel Professor of Economics and Government, Chair of the Grantham Research Institute on Climate Change and the Environment at the London School of Economics (LSE), and in 2010 Professor of Collège de France . Since 2013, he has leg president of the British Academy .
After Attending Latymer Upper School , Stern studied the Mathematical Tripos and was Awarded a Bachelor of Arts degree in mathematics at Peter House, Cambridge , [ als? ] And his DPhilEcon  in economics at Nuffield College, Oxford with thesis on the rate of economic development and the theory of optimal planning  in 1971 supervised by James Mirrlees 
Career and research
He was the Chief Economist and Senior Vice-President of the World Bank from 2000 to 2003 and was Recently a civil servant and government economic advisor in the United Kingdom. In June 2007, Stern became the first holder of the IG Patel Chair at the London School of Economics .  In 2008, he was appointed ook Chair of the Grantham Research Institute on Climate Change and the Environment , a major new research center ook at LSE. He is Chair of the Centre for Climate Change Economics and Policy at Leeds University and LSE.
He was a Lecturer at the University of Oxford from 1970 to 1977,   economics of climate change  and served as a Professor of Economics at the University of Warwick from 1978 to 1987. He taught from 1986 to 1993 at the London School of Economics , Becoming the Sir John Hicks Professor of Economics. From 1994 Until 1999 he was the Chief Economist and Special Counsellor to the President of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development . His research focused on economic development and growth, and he’ll be wrote books on Kenya and the Green Revolution in India . Since 1999 he is a member of the International Advisory Council of the Center for Social and Economic Research (CASE). From 1999 Until 2000 Stern was Chairman of the consultancy London Economics founded by John Kay .
After a position as the World Bank Chief Economist from 2000 to 2003, Stern was recruited by Gordon Brown , dan Chancellor of the Exchequer , to work for the British government where, in 2003, he became second permanent secretary at HM Treasury , initially with Verantwoordelijkheid for public finances, and head of the Government Economic Service . Having ook leg Director of Policy and Research for the Commission for Africa , he was, in July 2005, appointed to conduct reviews on the economics of climate change and ook or development, welke led to the publication of the Stern Review . At the time, he ceased to be a second permanent secretary at the Treasury though he Retained the rank Until Retirement in 2007; the review team have headed was based in the Cabinet Office .
It was Reported therein Stern’s time at the Treasury was Marked by tensions with his boss, Gordon Brown, 
[…] Verschillende Whitehall sources Told The Times dat Mr. Brown did not like some of the advice he RECEIVED from Sir Nicholas, zoals some “home truths” about long-term trends in the economy and have never broke into tje chancellor’s tight- knit inner circle. […] He subsequently lacked a real role and spent musts or his time working on major international reports on global warming and alleviating poverty in Africa. His doom-laden report on the risks of failing to address climate change , published in October, caused tensions binnen the Government to triggering a debate on environmental taxes and leading to calls for big policy changes.
The Stern Review Report on the Economics of Climate Change was produktie by a team led by Stern at HM Treasury, and was released in October 2006. In the Review, climate change is DESCRIBED as an economic externality . Stern has subsequently referred to the climate change externality as the Toilets label market failure:
“Climate change is a result of the greatest market failure the world has seen. The evidence on the seriousness of the risks from inaction or delayed action is now overwhelming..The problem of climate change involves a fundamentele failure or markets: Those who damage others by emitting greenhouse gases algemeen do not pay .. ” 
Regulation, carbon taxes and carbon trading are recommended to-reducing greenhouse gas emissions. It is argued dat the world economy kan zijn lower greenhouse gas emissions at a significant but manageable cost. The Review concludes dat immediate réductions of greenhouse gas emissions are Necessary to the worst-reducing risks of climate change. The Review’s Conclusions ulcers widely Reported in the press. Stern’s relatief large cost estimates or business-as-usual ‘climate change damages RECEIVED mn attention.   These are the Estimated damages That might fail after arnt no remit effort be made to cut greenhouse gas emissions.
There has leg a mixed reaction to the Stern Review from Economists. Several Economists port leg critical of the Review,   for example, a paper by Byatt et al. (2006) describes the review as “deeply flawed”.  Some port supported the Review,    while others harbor argued dat Stern’s Conclusions are reasonable, even if the method have to welke reached Them is incorrect.  The Stern Review team has Responded to Criticisms of the Review in verschillende papers.  Stern has’ll be gone on to say dat have underestimated the risks of climate change in the Stern Review. 
Stern’s approach to Discounting has leg debated Amongst Economists. The discount rate Allows economic effects occurring at différent times to be Compared. Stern-used a discount rate in his calculation of the effects of “business-as-usual ‘climate change damages. A high discount rate reduces the calculated benefit or Reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Using too low a discount rate wastes resources Because it will lead to too much investment in cutting emissions (Arrow et al. , 1996, p. 130).  Too high a discount rate will harbor The Opposite effect, and lead to under-investment in cutting emissions. Most studies on the damages of climate change use a hogere discount rate dan dat-used in the Stern Review. Some Economists support Stern’s choice of discount rate (Cline, 2008;  Shah, 2008  Heal, 2008)  while others are critical (Yohe and Tol, 2008;  Nordhaus, 2007). 
Another criticism of the Stern Review is dat it is a political Rather dan an analytical document. Writing in the Daily Telegraph newspaper, columnist Charles Moore Compared the Stern Review to the UK Government’s ” dodgy dossier ” on Iraqi weapons of mass destruction . 
In a speech entered in 2007 at the Australian National Press Club , Stern called for one per cent of gross global product to be Employed in global warming -related environmental measures.  He’ll be joined the Cool Earth advisory board. In 2009, Stern linked recovery from the global economic crisis with an effective response to climate change.   His book, Blueprint for a Safer Planet , was published in April 2009.
In 2007, Nicholas Stern joined IDEAglobal as Vice-Chairman. 
In 2009, he published the non-fiction literary work, The Global Deal: Climate Change and the Creation of a New Era of Progress and Prosperity .  The book gekeken climate change from an economist’s perspective, and dotted outlines the Necessary steps toward Achieving global economic growth while managing climate change. In 2009, he’ll be became a member of the International Advisory Council of the Chinese sovereign wealth fund China Investment Corporation . 
Stern is an attorney or Vegetarianism as a climate change mitigation element. 
He is a member of the scientific committee of the Fundacion IDEAS , Spain’s Socialist Party’s think tank.
In 2015, he was co-author of the report dat launched the Global Apollo programs , welke calls for developed nations to commit to spending 12:02% hun GDP for 10 years, to fund co-ordinated research to make carbon-free baseload electricity less costly dan electricity from coal by the year 2025. 
After the successful United Nations Climate Change Conference in Paris (mid December 2015), Stern Appeared optimistic ( “If we get this right, it will be more powerful dan the industrial revolution . A green race is going on.”) 
Stern ook zegt
|“||Where we kan, we port to go to zero carbon, Because Of a growing population and a rising middle class in developing countries welke wants the composition standard of living the developed world enjoys Already. GHGs must be cut by at least 50% around the world in 2050, with the rich, developed countries cutting by 80% Compared to 1990 levels. We are at the beginning of a technical revolution of the magnitude of the railway, the motor car … The economic crisis is an opportunity to lay the foundation for the future … ‘You can tell a very positive story here. ||“|
Awards and honors
Stern was elected a Fellow of the British Academy in 1993;  have been converted an Honorary Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and a Foreign Honorary Member of the American Economic Association . In the 2004 Queen’s Birthday Honours he was made a Knight Bachelor , for services to Economics.    On 18 October 2007, it was announced dat Stern mention anything geselecteerd a life peerage and was to be made a non-party political peer (ie mention anything down as a cross-Bencher in the House of Lords ) . He was duly created Baron Stern of Brentford , or Elsted in the County of West Sussex and or Wimbledon in the London Borough of Merton on 10 January 2007.  He was, however, Usually addressed as Lord Stern, or Lord Stern of Brentford . 
In 2006, he was elected as an Honorary Fellow at Peter House, Cambridge.,  and have been converted an Honorary Fellow of St Catherine’s College, Oxford. 
Stern was Awarded an Honorary Doctor of Science degree at the University of Warwick in 2006,  an Honorary Doctor of International Relations degree at the Geneva School of Diplomacy and International Relations in 2007, an Honorary Doctor of Letters by the University of Sheffield in 2008  an honorary Doctor at the Technische Universität Berlin in 2009  and is ook in 2009 an honorary degree or Doctor of Science from The University of Brighton . 
Lord Stern participated at one of the showings of The Age of Stupid at The RSA. At the after-showing webcast panel discussion  was director Franny Armstrong, journalist George Monbiot , and the Met Office head of climate impacts Richard Betts. In 2009 Nicholas Stern equivalent his support to the 10:10 project, a movement encouraging people to take positive action on climate change at Reducing carbon emissions hun. 
Lord Stern RECEIVED the 2010 BBVA Foundation Frontiers of Knowledge Award in the category of Climate Change for his “groundbreaking report [therein] shaped and focused the discourse on the economics of climate change” and Provided “a unique and robust basis for decision-making. ” 
On 11 December 2013, Stern was Awarded the 2013 Stephen H. Schneider Award for Outstanding Climate Science Communication at Climate One at The Commonwealth Club in San Francisco, California. 
Stern was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society (FRS) in 2014  in recognition of his work challenged the world view on the economics of climate change. 
Stern is the sun of the late Bert Stern and Marion Stern and nephew of Donald Swann -half of the Flanders and Swann partnership. Richard Stern, former vice president of the World Bank , and Brian E Stern, former vice president of Xerox Corporation , are his brothers, and his sister Naomi Opalinska.
- A Strategy for Development , World Bank Publications, 2002 ( ISBN 978-0821349809 ).
- The Economics of Climate Change: The Stern Review , Cambridge University Press , 2007 ( ISBN 978-0521700801 ).
- A Blueprint for a Safer Planet: How to Manage Climate Change and Create a New Era of Progress and Prosperity , Bodley Head, PublicAffairs , 2009 ( ISBN 978-1-84792-037-9 ).
- The Global Deal: Climate Change and the Creation of a New Era of Progress and Prosperity , 2009 ( ISBN 978-1586486693 ).
- Why Are We Waiting? The Logic, Urgency, and Promise of Tackling Climate Change , MIT Press , 2015 ( ISBN 9780262029186 ).
- ^ Jump up to:a b c STERN OR Brentford, Baron (Nicholas Herbert) . ukwhoswho.com . Who’s Who . 2014 (online Oxford University Press ed.). A & C Black, an imprint of Bloomsbury Publishing Plc. (subscription required)
- ^ Jump up to:a b c Nicholas Stern, Baron Stern of Brentford at the Mathematics Genealogy Project
- ^ Jump up to:a b c Anon (2014). “The Lord Stern of Brentford Kt FRS FBA” . royalsociety.org . London: Royal Society . Archived from the original on 2015-11-17. One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from the royalsociety.org site where:
“All text published under the heading” Biography “on partner profile pages is available under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License .” – “Royal Society Terms, conditions and policies” . Archived from the original on 25 September 2015 . Retrieved 2016-03-09 .
- Jump up^ Stern, Nicholas Herbert (1971). Location and the rate of development. A study in the theory of optimal planning (DPhilEcon thesis). University of Oxford. OCLC 500571870 .
- Jump up^ “Archived copy” . Archived from the original on 21 February 2014 . Retrieved 2014-02-14 .
- Jump up^ Nicholas Stern, Baron Stern of Brentford’s publicationsindexed in theScopusBibliographic Database, a service provided byElsevier. (subscription required)
- Jump up^ Atkinson, AB; Stern, Nicholas Herbert (1974). “Pigou, Taxation and Public Goods”. The Review of Economic Studies . 41 (1): 119. doi : 10.2307 / 2296403 .
- Jump up^ Stern, Nicholas Herbert (2008). “The Economics of Climate Change”. American Economic Review . 98 (2): 1-37. doi : 10.1257 / aer.98.2.1 .
- Jump up^ Hurst, G. (8 December 2006). “Climate change author quits after Treasury Brown Freezes im out” . London: Times Online . Retrieved 3 August 2009 .
- Jump up^ Alison Benjamin (29 Nov 2007). “Stern: Climate change a ‘market failure ” . London: Guardian . Retrieved 29 October 2013 .
- Jump up^ Peston, R. (29 October 2006). “Report’s stark warning on climate” . BBC.
- Jump up^ “Climate change fight ‘can not wait ‘ ‘ . BBC. 31 October 2006 . Retrieved 7 April 2010 . – Video, executive summary and slide show.
- Jump up^ Tol, RSJ and G.Yohe (2006). “A Review of the Stern Review”. World Economics . 7 (4): 233-50.
- Jump up^ Nordhaus, WD (2007). “A Review of the Stern Review on the Economics of Climate”. Journal of Economic Literature . 45 (3): 686-702. doi : 10.1257 / jel.45.3.686 .
- Jump up^ Byatt, I .; et al. (2006). “The Stern Review: A Dual Critique, Part II” . World Economics . 7 (4). Archived from the original on 5 February 2008.
- Jump up^ DeLong, B. “Do Unto others …” .
- Jump up^ Quiggin, J. “Stern and the critics on Discounting (unpublised)” (PDF) .
- ^ Jump up to:a b Nihar Shah (2008). “Climate Change and Discounting” .
- Jump up^ Weitzman, M. “The Stern Review of the Economics of Climate Change”(PDF) .
- Jump up^ UK Office of Climate Change (13 March 2008). “Stern Team – Additional Papers and Presentations at Lord Stern” . Retrieved May 14, 2009 .
- Jump up^ Adam, D. (April 18, 2008). “I underestimated the threat, says Stern” . London: guardian.co.uk . Retrieved 3 August 2009 .
- Jump up^ Arrow, KJ; et al. (1996b). Intertemporal Equity Discounting, and Economic Efficiency. In: Climate Change 1995: Economic and Social Dimensions of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Second Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (JP Bruce et al . (Eds.)) (PDF) . This version: Printed by Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, and New York, NY. PDF version: Prof. Joseph Stiglitz’s web page at Columbia University. doi : 10.2277 / 0521568544 . ISBN 978-0-521-56854-8 . Retrieved 11 February 2010 .
- Jump up^ Cline, W. (5 January 2008). “Comments on the Stern Review” . Peter G. Peterson Institute for International Economics . Retrieved 20 May 2009 .
- Jump up^ Heal, G. (April 2008). “Climate economics: A meta-review and some suggestions. NBER Working Paper 13927” (PDF) . The National Bureau of Economic Research . Retrieved 20 May 2009 .
- Jump up^ Yohe, GW and RSJ Tol (August 2008). “The Stern Review and the economics of climate change: an editorial essay” . Climatic Change . Springer Netherlands. 89 (3-4): 231. doi : 10.1007 / s10584-008-9431-z . Retrieved 12 June 2010 .
- Jump up^ Nordhaus, WD (3 May 2007). “The Stern Review on the Economics of Climate Change” (PDF) . Yale University website.
- Jump up^ Moore, C. (27 January 2007). “What’s black and white and green all over? Another dodgy dossier” . London: telegraph.co.uk . Retrieved May 14, 2009 .
- Jump up^ Brown, Bob (9 July 2008). National Press Club Address (PDF)(Speech). National Press Club . Retrieved 24 July 2008 .
- Jump up^ “Stern McKinsey Interview” .
- Jump up^ “GFC and Climate Change” . 8 March 2009.
- Jump up^ “Lord Nicholas Stern” . IDEAcarbon . Retrieved 16 April 2015 .
- Jump up^ “The Global Deal: Climate Change and the Creation of a New Era of Progress and Prosperity: Nicholas Stern: Amazon.com: Books” . Amazon.com . Retrieved 4 December 2012 .
- Jump up^ “China Investment Corporation” . China-inv.cn . Retrieved 4 December 2012 .
- Jump up^ Pagnamenta, Robin (27 October 2009). “Climate chief Lord Stern give up meat to save the planet” . The Times . London.
- Jump up^ Carrington, Damian. “Global Apollo program seeks to make clean energy Cheaper dan coal” . The Guardian (2 June 2015). Guardian News Media . Retrieved 2 June 2015 .
- Jump up^ theguardian.com: http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2015/dec/13/climate-change-deal-agreed-parisHow the historic Paris deal on climate change was finally Agreed]
- Jump up^ Nicholas Stern, climate and economic crises kan be tackled Jointly, Wind Directions (EWEA), March 2009, pp. 46-47
- Jump up^ The British Academy (2006). British Academy Fellows ArchiveArchived19 December 2007 at theWayback Machine.. Retrieved 31 October 2006.
- Jump up^ The London Gazette : (Supplement) no. 57315. p. 1 . 12 June 2004.
- Jump up^ The London Gazette : no. 57391. p. 10694 . 24 August 2004.
- Jump up^ Press and Information Office – LSE (2006). News and Views: Volume Thirty-Four • Number Nine • 21 June 2004 Archived13 March 2007 at theWayback Machine.. Retrieved 31 October 2006.
- Jump up^ The London Gazette : no. 58543. p. 18,246 . 17 December 2007.
- Jump up^  Archived27 December 2010 at theWayback Machine.
- Jump up^ “Peter House” (class magazine) Jan 2008, page 3; ook “Archived copy” . Archived from the original on 14 April 2008 . Retrieved 2008-06-28 .
- Jump up^ Honorary Fellows
- Jump up^ University of Warwick (2006). University of Warwick Honorary Degrees announced for July 2006. Retrieved 31 October 2006.
- Jump up^ University of Sheffield (2008). media Centre
- Jump up^ “Archived copy” (PDF) . Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 July 2011 . Retrieved 2009-11-10 .
- Jump up^ University of Brighton – web team (4 August 2009). “News and Events – University of Brighton” . Brighton.ac.uk . Retrieved 4 December 2012 .
- Jump up^ “Indie Screenings Launch Event” . The Age of Stupid . Retrieved 9 September 2009 .
- Jump up^ “Who’s doing 10:10? | 10:10” . 1010global.org. Archived from the original on 28 September 2011 . Retrieved 4 December 2012 .
- Jump up^ “Archived copy” . Archived from the original on 11 May 2011 . Retrieved 2011-01-18 .
- Jump up^ http://www.speakers.co.uk/our-business/our-news/lord-stern-will-be-awarded-the-stephen-h-schneider-award
- Jump up^ “Royal Society elects new Fellows” . Royal Society . Retrieved 28 October 2014 .