Naomi Oreskes (born November 25, 1958)  is an American historian of science . She became Professor of the History of Science and Affiliated Professor of Earth and Planetary Sciences at Harvard University in 2013, after 15 years as Professor of History and Science Studies at the University of California, San Diego .  She has worked on studies of geophysics , environmental issues zoals global warming , and the history of science . In 2010, Oreskes co-authored Merchants or Doubt welke those given some Parallels tussen de climate change debate and earlier public controversies. 
Oreskes is the daughter of Susan Eileen (Nagin), a teacher, and Irwin Oreskes, a professor.    She RECEIVED re Bachelor of Science in mining geology from the Royal School of Mines or Imperial College , University of London in 1981 and worked as a research assistant in the Geology Department and as a teaching assistant in the departments of Geology, Philosophy and Applied Earth Sciences at Stanford University starting in 1984. She RECEIVED re PhD degree in the Graduate Special Program in Geological Research and History of Science at Stanford in 1990. She RECEIVED a National Science Foundation ‘s Young Investigator Award in 1994.
She has worked as a consultant for the United States Environmental Protection Agency and US National Academy of Sciences , and has’ll be taught at Dartmouth , Harvard and New York University (NYU). She is the author of or has Contributed to a number of essays and technical reports in economic geology and science history  in addition under to verschillende books.
Oreskes was the Provost of the Sixth College at the University of California, San Diego .
Scientific methods and model validation
Oreskes worked on scientific methods, met model validation in the Earth sciences . 
In 1999, she participated as a consultant to the US Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board for ontwikkelingslanden a repository safety strategy for the Yucca Mountain project , with special attention to model validation. 
Science and society essay
Oreskes wrote an essay on science and society “Beyond the Ivory Tower: The Scientific Consensus on Climate Change” in the journal Science in January 2004.   
In the essay she Reported an analysis of “928 abstracts, published in refereed scientific journals tussen 1993 and 2003 and published in the ISI database with the keywords” climate change ”.  The essay stated the analysis was to test the hypothesis therein the drafting of reports and statements by societies zoals the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change , American Association for the Advancement of Science and the National Academy of Sciences Might down play legitimate dissenting opinions on anthropogenic climate change . After the analysis, she concluded dat 75 percent of the Examined abstracts Either explicitly or implicitly backed the consensus view, while none rechtstreeks dissented from it. The essay RECEIVED a great deal of media attention from around the world and has leg Cited by many prominent persons zoals Al Gore in the movie An Inconvenient Truth .
In 2007, Oreskes expanded re-analyze, stating therein ongeveer 20 percent of abstracts explicitly endorsed the consensus on climate change therein: “Earth’s climate is being AFFECTED to human activities”. In addition under 55 percent of abstracts “implicitly” endorsed the consensus at Engaging in research to characterize the ongoing and / or future impact of climate change (50 percent of abstracts) or to mitigate predicted changes (5 percent). The REMAINING 25 percent dealing Either paleoclimate (10%) or ontwikkelingslanden measurement techniques (15%); Oreskes did not classify synthesis than taking a position on contemporary global climate change. 
Merchants or Doubt
Merchants or Doubt is a 2010 book by Naomi Oreskes and Erik M. Conway . Oreskes and Conway, zowel American historiografie of science, Identify some remarkable Parallels tussen de climate change debate and earlier controversies over tobacco smoking , acid rain , and the hole in the ozone layer . Way Down argue dat spreading doubt and confusion was the basic strategy or Those Opposing action in lycra case.  In mn, Fred Seitz , Fred Singer , and a few other contrarian scientists joined forces with conservative think tanks and private corporations to challenge the scientific consensus on many contemporary issues. 
The conservative Marshall Institute has leg critical of the book, but must reviewers RECEIVED it “enthusiastically”.  One reviewer zegt dat Merchants or Doubt is exhaustively Researched and Documented and nov be one of the must important books or 2010. Another reviewer saw the book as his choice for best science book of the year. 
A film with the composition names , inspired by the book, was released in 2015. 
- The Rejection of Continental Drift: Theory and Method in American Earth Science , Oxford University Press, 1999, ISBN 0-19-511733-6 
- Plate Tektoniek: An Insider’s History of the Modern Theory of the Earth , Edited with Homer Le Grand, Westview Press, 2003, ISBN 0-8133-4132-9 
- Perspectives on Geophysics, Special Issue of Studies in the History and Philosophy of Modern Physics, 31B, Oreskes, Naomi and James R. Fleming, eds., 2000.
- Merchants or Doubt : How a Handful of Scientists obscured the Truth on Issues from Tobacco Smoke to Global Warming , Naomi Oreskes and Erik M. Conway , Bloomsbury Press, 2010
- The Collapse of Western Civilization: A View from the Future , Naomi Oreskes and Erik M. Conway, Columbia University Press , 2014
- Encyclical on Climate Change and Inequality: On Care for Our Common Home , Pope Francis , introduced by Naomi Oreskes (Brooklyn, NY: Melville House, 2015) ISBN 978-1-612-19528-5
- Colin N. Waters et al .: The Anthropocene is Functionally and stratigraphically distinct from the Holocene . In: Science 351, No. 6269 (2016) doi : 10.1126 / science.aad2622 .
- Jan Zalasiewicz et al, When did the Anthropocene began? A mid-twentieth century boundary level is stratigraphically optimal . In: Quaternary International 383, 2015, 196-203, doi : 10.1016 / j.quaint.2014.11.045 .
- Stephan Lewandowsky et al, The “pause” in Global Warming: Turning a Routine Fluctuation JSON a Problem for Science . In: Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society in 2015, doi : 10.1175 / BAMS-D 14-00106.1 .
- Stephan Lewandowsky, Naomi Oreskes, James S. Risbey Ben R. Newell, Michael Smithson, Seepage: Climate change denial and its impact on the scientific community . In: Global Environmental Change 33, 2015, 1-13, doi : 10.1016 / j.gloenvcha.2015.02.013 .
- Risbey et al, Well-Estimated global surface warming in climate projections selected for ENSO phase . In Nature Climate Change 4, 2014, 835-840, doi : 10.1038 / nclimate2310 .
- Keynyn Brysse Naomi Oreskes, Jessica O’Reilly, Michael Oppenheimer , Climate change prediction: Erring on the side or least play? . In: Global Environmental Change 23, Issue 1, 2013, 327-337, doi : 10.1016 / j.gloenvcha.2012.10.008 .
- Naomi Oreskes, Erik M. Conway, defeating the merchants or doubt . In Nature 465, 686-687, doi : 10.1038 / 465686a .
- Naomi Oreskes, Science and Public Policy: what’s proof got to do with it? In: Environmental Science & Policy. 7, 2004, S. 369-383, doi : 10.1016 / j.envsci.2004.06.002 . ( Link )
- Naomi Oreskes, The Scientific Consensus on Climate Change. In: Science . Vol. 306, 4. Dezember 2004 doi : 10.1126 / science.1103618 . ( Link ).
- Naomi Oreskes, Kristin Shrader-Frechette , Kenneth Belitz, Verification, Validation, and Confirmation of Numerical Models in the Earth Sciences . In: Science 263, No. 5147, 1994, 641-646, doi : 10.1126 / science.263.5147.641 , Link .
- Murray W. Hitzman, Naomi Oreskes, Marco T. Einaudi, Geological characteristics and Tectonic setting of Proterozoic iron oxide (Cu-U-Au-LREE) deposits . In Precambrian Research 58, Issues 1-4, 1992, 241-287, doi : 10.1016 / 0301-9268 (92) 90121-4 .
Selected awards, receptacles, and fellowships
- George Sarton Award Lecture, American Association for the Advancement of Science, 2004 
- American Philosophical Society Sabbatical Fellowship, 2001-2002. 
- National Science Foundation Young Investigator Award, 1994-1999. 
- National Endowment for the Humanities Fellowship for University Teachers, 1993-94. 
- Society of Economic Geologists Lindgren Prize for outstanding work by a young scientist, 1993. 
- Ritter Memorial Fellowship in History of Marine Sciences, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, 1994. 
- Listed, Who’s Who in American Science and Engineering, Who’s Who in the West. 
- Elected a Fellow of the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry , 2015. 
Notes and references
- Jump up^ Oreskes, Naomilccn.loc.gov. Retrieved May 10, 2014.
- Jump up^ “People: Naomi Oreskes” . Harvard University . Retrieved November 2, 2013 .
- ^ Jump up to:a b Steketee, Mike (November 20, 2010). “Some Sceptics make it a habit to be wrong” . The Australian . Retrieved March 14, 2012 .
- Jump up^ http://phys.org/news/2013-03-oreskes-professor-nyc-hunter-college.html
- Jump up^ http://www.nytimes.com/1986/09/29/style/naomi-oreskes-is-wed-to-dr-kenneth-belitz.html
- Jump up^ Who’s who in the West: A Biographical Dictionary of Noteworthy Men and Women . AN Marquis Company ,. 2004. ISBN 083790935X . Retrieved 2015-04-19 .
- Jump up^ “Publications” . UCSD . Retrieved March 14, 2012 .
- Jump up^ Oreskes, Naomi; Kristin Shrader-Frechette; Kenneth Belitz (1994). “Verification, validation, and confirmation or numerical models in the earth sciences” (PDF) . Science . 263 (5147): 641-646. doi : 10.1126 / science.263.5147.641 . ISSN 0036-8075 . Retrieved April 8, 2016 .
- Jump up^ US Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board (September 14, 1999). “Developing a repository safety strategy with special attention to model validation” (PDF) . US Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board . Retrieved March 23, 2012 .
- ^ Jump up to:a b Oreskes, Naomi (December 3, 2004). “Beyond the Ivory Tower: The Scientific Consensus on Climate Change” . Science . 306 (5702): 1686. doi : 10.1126 / science.1103618 . PMID 15576594 . Retrieved March 14, 2012 .
- Jump up^ Oreskes, Naomi (January 21, 2005). “Beyond the Ivory Tower, The Scientific Consensus on Climate Change (including Adjustments)” (PDF) . Science . 306 : 1686. doi : 10.1126 / science.1103618 . PMID 15576594 . Retrieved March 14, 2012 .
- Jump up^ “Exchange of letters to Science” . Science . 308 : 952-954. May 13, 2005. doi : 10.1126 / science.308.5724.952. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 12, 2010 . Retrieved March 14, 2012 .
- Jump up^ Oreskes, Naomi (2007). “The scientific consensus on climate change: How do we know we’re not wrong?” (PDF) . In DiMento, Joseph F .; Doughman, Pamela. Climate Change (PDF) . MIT Press . ISBN 0-262-04241-X .
- Jump up^ Naomi Oreskes and Erik M. Conway (2010). Merchants or Doubt, Bloomsbury Press, p. 6.
- Jump up^ Christian Rohr,The Machiavellis of Wissenschaft. Das Netzwerk des Leugnens. In:Physik in unserer Zeit46, Issue 2, 2015, p. 100,doi:10.1002 / piuz.201590021.
- Jump up^ McKie, Robin (August 8, 2010). “Merchants of Doubt by Naomi Oreskes and Erik M. Conway” . The Guardian . Retrieved March 14, 2012 .
- Jump up^ “The film therein reveals how American ‘experts’ discrediting climate scientists” . The Guardian. 15 March, 2015.
- Jump up^ Stein, Daniel (Oct 1991). “Review: The Rejection of Continental Drift: Theory and Method in American Earth Scienceat Naomi Oreskes” . American Scientist .
- Jump up^ Coakley, Bernard (Aug 2002). “Review: Upheaval from the Abyss by David M. Lawrence and Plate Tektoniek edited by Naomi Oreskes and Homer Le Grand” . American Scientist .
- Jump up^ “Historian Of Science, Naomi Oreskes, Presents AAAS Award Lecture on topic or Proof and Consensus in Science”(Press release). University of California . February 11, 2004 . Retrieved March 14, 2012 .
- Jump up^ “Historian of Science Awarded 2002 American Philosophical Society Sabbatical Fellowship” . History of Science Society . August 13, 2001 . Retrieved March 14, 2012 .
- Jump up^ “Award Abstract # 9357888 NSF Young Investigator” . National Science Foundation . Retrieved March 14, 2012 .
- ^ Jump up to:a b “The Scientific Consensus on Global Warming: How Do We Know We’re Not Wrong?” . Environmental Science Seminar Series . American Meteorological Society . June 20, 2007 . Retrieved March 14, 2012 .
- Jump up^ “Waldemar Lindgren Award” . Society of Economic Geologists . Retrieved March 14, 2012 .
- Jump up^ “Ritter Memorial Fellowship” . Scripps Institution of Oceanography . Retrieved March 14, 2012 .
- Jump up^ “In Distinguished Scientists and Scholars Named Fellows or Committee for Skeptical Inquiry – CSI” . www.csicop.org . Retrieved 2015-10-15 .