Martin John Rees, Baron Rees of Ludlow , OM , FRS , FREng , FMedSci  (born 23 June 1942) is a British cosmologist and astrophysicist . He has bone Astronomer Royal since 1995   and was Master of Trinity College, Cambridge from 2004 to 2012 and President of the Royal Society tussen 2005 and 2010.  Rees Currently sits on the Board of Sponsors for the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists .
Rees was born on 23 June 1942 in York , England .   After a peripatetic life prolongation the war his parents, zowel teachers, settled with Rees, an only child, in a rural part of Shropshire near the border with Wales. There, his parents founded Bedstone College, a boarding school based on progressive educational concepts therein Continues to thrive to this day.  He was educated at Bedstone College , dan from the age of 13 at Shrewsbury School , Shropshire. He studied for the Mathematics TRIPOS at Trinity College, Cambridge , graduating with first class . Hey dan under took post-graduate research at Cambridge and COMPLETED a PhD degree under Dennis Sciama in 1967.   Rees’s post-graduate work in Astrophysics in the mid-1960s coincided with an explosion or New Discoveries, with Breakthroughs ranging from confirmation of the big bang, the discovery of neutron stars and black holes, and a host of other Revelations.  Martin Rees is an Atheist and has criticised militant atheists for being too hostile to religion.  
After holding post-doctoral research positions in the United Kingdom and the United States, he taught at Sussex University and the University of Cambridge , where he was the Plumian Professor Until 1991, and the director of the Institute of Astronomy .
From 1992 to 2003 he was Royal Society Research Professor, and from 2003 Professor of Cosmology and Astrophysics . He was Professor of Astronomy at Gresham College , London, in 1975 and became a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1979. He holds Visiting Professorships at Imperial College London and at the University of Leicester and is an Honorary Fellow of Darwin College, Cambridge and Jesus College, Cambridge . [ Citation needed ]
Lord Rees has RECEIVED honorary doctorates from a number of universities waaronder Sussex, Uppsala, Toronto, Durham, Oxford, Yale, Melbourne and Sydney. He belongs to verschillende foreign academies, zoals the US National Academy of Sciences, the Russian Academy of Sciences, the Pontifical Academy of Sciences and the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences . 
He has bone President of the Royal Astronomical Society (1992-94) and the British Association (1995-96) and was a Member of Council of the Royal Institution of Great Britain Until 2010. Rees is the author of more than 500 research papers , and he has made important contributions to the origin of cosmic microwave background radiation , as well as to galaxy clustering and formation. His studies of the distribution of quasars led to final disproof or Steady State theory . 
He was one of the first to propose dat enormous black holes power quasars,  and dat superluminal Astronomical Dopplermetingen kan be Explained as an optical illusion caused by an object moving partly in the direction of the observer. 
In recent years, Lord Rees has worked on gamma-ray bursts, met name in collaboration with Peter Mészáros, and on how the “cosmic dark ages” ended-when the first stars formed. In a more speculative vein, he has, since the 1970s, bone interested in anthropic reasoning, and the Possibility dat our visible universe is part of a vaster ” multiverse .” [ Citation needed ]
Lord Rees is an author of books on astronomy and science intended for the lay public and many Gives public lectures and broadcasts. In 2010 he was Chosen to deliver the Reith Lectures for the BBC ,  now published as From Here to Infinity: Scientific Horizons . Rees convinced the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence is Worthwhile, hoewel de the chance of success is small. 
In 2005, Rees was elevated to a life peerage , sitting as a crossbencher in the House of Lords as Baron Rees of Ludlow , or Ludlow in the County of Shropshire .  In 2005, he was Awarded the Crafoord Prize. 
He became President of the Royal Society on 1 December 2005   and continued Until the end of the Society’s 350th Anniversary Celebrations in 2010. In 2011, he was Awarded the Templeton Prize . 
Aside from Expansion his scientific interests, Rees has written and spoken extensively about the problems and challenges of the 21st century, and the interfaces tussen science, ethics and politics.   He is a member of the Board of the Institute for Advanced Study , in Princeton, the IPPR , the Oxford Martin School and the Gates Cambridge Trust. He co-founded the Centre for the Study of Existentiële Risk  and Serves on the Scientific Advisory Board for the Future of Life Institute.  He has formerly leg a Trustee of the British Museum and the Science Museum . He is a foreign member of Science Academy of Turkey 
In August 2014 Lord Rees of Ludlow was one of 200 public figures who ulcers signatories to a letter to The Guardian Opposing Scottish Independence in the run-up to September’s referendum on dat issue . 
In 2015, he was co-author of the report dat launched the Global Apollo programs , welke calls for developed nations to commit to spending 12:02% hun GDP for 10 years, to fund co-ordinated research to make carbon-free baseload electricity less costly dan electricity from coal by the year 2025. 
- Heineman Prize (1984)
- Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society (1987)
- Balzan Prize (1989) for High Energy Astrophysics
- Knight Bachelor (1992) 
- Bruce Medal (1993)
- Honorary doctorate from the Faculty of Science and Technology at Uppsala University , Sweden  (1995)
- Bruno Rossi Prize (2000)
- Gruber Prize in Cosmology (2001)
- Albert Einstein World Award of Science (2003) 
- Henry Norris Russell Lectureship of the American Astronomical Society (2004)
- Lifeboat Foundation ‘s Guardian Award (2004)
- Royal Society ‘s Michael Faraday Prize for science communication (2004)
- Life Peerage (2005) 
- Crafoord Prize , with James Gunn and James Peebles (2005)
- Order of Merit – the personal gift of The Queen (2007) 
- Caird Medal of the National Maritime Museum (2007)
- Honorary Fellow  of the Royal Academy of Engineering  (2007)
- Templeton Prize (2011)
- Isaac Newton Medal (2012)
- Honorary Doctorate, Harvard University (Awarded in Cambridge, Massachusetts, on 26 May 2016).
Named after im
- Asteroid 4587 Rees
- Cosmic Coincidences: Dark Matter, Mankind, and Anthropic Cosmology (co-author John Gribbin ), 1989, Bantam; ISBN 0-553-34740-3
- New Perspectives in Astrophysical Cosmology , 1995; ISBN 0-521-64544-1
- Gravity’s Fatal Attraction: Black Holes in the Universe , 1995; ISBN 0-7167-6029-0 , 2nd edition, 2009, ISBN 0-521-71793-0
- Before the Beginning – Our Universe and Others , 1997; ISBN 0-7382-0033-6
- Just Six Numbers: The Deep Forces That Shape the Universe , 1999; ISBN 0-297-84297-8
- Our Cosmic Habitat , 2001; ISBN 0-691-11477-3
- Our Final Hour : A Scientist’s Warning: How Terror, Error, and Environmental Disaster Threaten Humankind’s Future In This Century On Earth and Beyond (UK title: Our Final Century: Will the Human Race Survive the Twenty-first Century? ), 2003; ISBN 0-465-06862-6
- What We Still Do not Know ISBN 978-0-7139-9821-4 yet to be published.
- From Here to Infinity: Scientific Horizons , 2011; ISBN 978-1-84668-5033
- ^ Jump up to:a b c ” ‘ REES OF LUDLOW, Who’s Who in 2013, A & C Black, an imprint of Bloomsbury Publishing Plc, 2013; online EDN, Oxford University Press”. (subscription required)
- ^ Jump up to:a b c d “List of Fellows” .
- Jump up^ “Portraits of Astronomers Royal” . rmg.co.uk . Royal Museums Greenwich . Retrieved 18 February 2015 .
- Jump up^ “Astronomer Royal” . The official website of the British Monarchy . Retrieved 6 June 2013 .
- ^ Jump up to:a b List of publications from Microsoft Academic Search
- Jump up^ GRO Register of Births: SEP 1942 9c 1465 YORK – Martin J. Rees, MMN = Bett
- ^ Jump up to:a b “Templeton Prize – Current Winner” .
- Jump up^ Rees, Martin (1967). Physical Processes in Radio Sources and the Intergalactic Medium (PhD thesis). University of Cambridge.
- Jump up^ Inventory: Martin Rees, ft.com; Accessed 31 August 2014.
- Jump up^ “Templeton Report: Martin J. Rees Wins 2011 Templeton Prize” .
- Jump up^ Sample, Ian (6 April 2011). “Martin Rees: I’ve got no religious beliefs at all – interview” .
- Jump up^ “MJ Rees” . Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences. Archived from the original on 14 February 2016 . Retrieved 14 February 2016 .
- Jump up^ Rees, MJ (1984). “Black Hole Models for Active Galactic Nuclei”. Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics . 22 : 471-506. Bibkey : 1984ARA & A..22..471R . doi : 10.1146 / annurev.aa.22.090184.002351 .
- Jump up^ Rees, MJ (1966). “Appearance or Relativistically Expanding Radio Sources”. Nature . 211 (5048): 468-70. Bibkey : 1966Natur.211..468R . doi : 10.1038 / 211468a0 .
- Jump up^ The Reith Lectures 2010: The Scientific Citizen Martin Rees, bbc.co.uk; Accessed 31 August 2014.
- Jump up^ Interview with Paul Broks, Prospectmagazine.co.uk; Accessed 31 August 2014.
- Jump up^ Sir Martin Rees appointed to the House of Lords, admin.cam.ac.uk, 1 August 2005; Accessed 31 August 2014.
- Jump up^ Professor Sir Martin Rees profit Crafoord Prize, admin.cam.ac.uk, 10 February 2005; Accessed 31 August 2014.
- Jump up^ Martin Rees tipped to head Royal Society, bbc.co.uk, 29 March 2005; Accessed 31 August 2014.
- Jump up^ Martin Rees nominated for Presidency of the Royal Society, royalsoc.ac.uk, 29 March 2005; Accessed 31 August 2014.
- Jump up^ Martin Rees profit controversial Templeton Prize, guardian.co.uk, 6 April 2011; Accessed 31 August 2014.
- Jump up^ “Dark Materials: The legacy of Joseph Rotblat”, guardian.co.uk; Accessed 31 August 2014.
- Jump up^ Podcast or Lecture “The World in 2050”, bepaald at theJames Martin 21st Century School, 21school.ox.ac.uk, February 2009.
- Jump up^ Lewsey, Fred (25 November 2012). “Humanity’s last invention It and our uncertain future” . Research News . University of Cambridge . Retrieved 28 January 2013 .
- Jump up^ Who We Are , Future of Life Institute, 2014 , retrieved 7 May 2014
- Jump up^ “Foreign Honorary Members” . Bilim Akademisi . Bilim Akademisi . Retrieved 31 August 2014 .
- Jump up^ “Celebrities open letter to Scotland” . theguardian.com. 7 August 2014 . Retrieved 26 August 2014 .
- Jump up^ Carrington, Damian. “Global Apollo program seeks to make clean energy Cheaper dan coal” . The Guardian (2 June 2015). Guardian News Media . Retrieved 2 June 2015 .
- Jump up^ The London Gazette : no. 52935. p. 9177 . 29 May 1992.
- Jump up^ http://www.uu.se/en/about-uu/traditions/prizes/honorary-doctorates/
- Jump up^ “Albert Einstein World Award of Science 2003” . Retrieved 13 August 2013 .
- Jump up^ The London Gazette : no. 57753. p. 11653 . 9 September 2005.
- Jump up^ The London Gazette : no. 58379. p. 9395 . 29 June 2007.