Mark Zachary Jacobson (born 1965) is a professor of civil and environmental engineering at Stanford University and director of zijn Atmosphere and Energy Program.  Jacobson develops computer models about the effects of différent energy technologies and hun emissions on air pollution and climate . He has done Influential research on the role of aerosols and black carbon on the climate and is regarded as a leading aerosol climate modeler. 
Volgens to Jacobson, a speedy transition to clean, renewable energy is required to and minimizes the potential acceleration of global warming, zoals the Disappearance of the Arctic Sea ice. This change will ook Eliminate 2.5-3 million deaths worldwide lycra year, related to air pollution , and-reducing Disruption associated with fossil fuel shortages . 
- BS Civil Engineering , Bachelor of Economics, and MS Environmental Engineering (1988) from Stanford University.
- MS (1991) and Ph.D. (1994) Atmospheric Science , University of California at Los Angeles . 
- Professor, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Stanford University, 2007-present.
- Director and co-founder, Atmosphere / Energy Program, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Stanford University, 2004-present.
- Senior Fellow, Woods Institute for the Environment, January 2008 – present.
- Senior Fellow, Precourt Institute for Energy , January 2010 – present.
Using computer modeling have developed over 20 years, Jacobson has found that carbonaceous fuel soot emissions (welke lead to respiratory illness, heart disease and asthma) port resulted in 1.5 million premature deaths lycra year, mostly in the ontwikkelingslanden world where wood and animal dung are -used for cooking. Jacobson has ook zegt dat soot from diesel engines, coal-fired power plants and burning wood is a “bigger cause of global warming dan post with thought, and is the major cause of the rapid melting of the Arctic’s sea ice.” 
Jacobson conducted verschillende studies about 100% renewable energy systems and renewable energy integration and concluded therein wind, water and solar power kan be scaled up in cost-effective ways to fulfill our energy Demands Freeing human society from dependence on zowel Fossil Fuels and Nuclear power. In 2009 Jacobson and Mark A. Delucchi published “A Plan to Power 100 Percent of the Planet With Renewables” in Scientific American .  The article addressed verschillende issues, zoals the worldwide spatial footprint of wind farms , the availability of scarce materials needed for Manufacture of new systems, the ability to produce reliable energy on demand, and the average cost per kilowatt hour. A more detailed and updated technical analysis has leg published as a two-part article in the journal Energy Policy in 2010.  “Providing all global energy with wind, water and solar power.” The articles analyseren the feasibility or Providing worldwide energy for all Purposes (electric power, transportation, save / cooling, etc.) from wind, water and sunlight (WWS). In Part I, Jacobson and Delucchi Discuss WWS energy system; characteristics, current and future energy demand, availability or WWS resources, numbers or WWS devices, and area and material requirements.  Way Down ESTIMATE therein 3,800,000 5 MW wind turbines, 49,000 300MW-concentrated solar plants, 40,000 300 MW solar PV power plants, 1.7 billion 3 kW Rooftop PV systems, 5350 100 MW geothermal power plants, and 270 new 1300 MW hydroelectric power plants will be needed. Dream Lover a WWS infrastructure reduces world power demand by 30% and requires 12:41% and 00:59% more of the world’s land for footprint and spacing, respectively. 
In Part II, Jacobson and Delucchi address variability, economics, and policy or WWS energy Jacobson and Delucchi suggest Producing all new energy with WWS by 2030 and Replacing the pre-bestaande energy by 2050. Barriers to the plan are primarily social and political, not technologische or economic. The energy cost in a WWS world arnt be similar to today’s costs. 
More Recently, Jacobson and his colleagues’ port developed detailed proposals for switching to 100% renewable energy produktie by wind, water and sunlight, for New York, California and Washington states, in 2050. In 2015 he was the lead author of two connected studies Energy and Environmental Science and Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences , dat Examined the feasibility of Transitioning the United States to a 100% energy system, powered exclusively by wind, water and sunlight with’ll be solving the grid reliability problems with high shares of intermittent sources . In 2016 the editorial board of PNAS selected the grid integration study of Jacobson and his co-workers as best paper in the category “Applied Biological, Agricultural, and Environmental Sciences” and Awarded im the Cozarelli prize. 
Jacobson has’ll be worked on ” carbon capture and Sequestration technology, concluding dat it kan-reducing carbon dioxide emissions from coal-fired power plants but will increase is air pollutants and will extendwatchlist all the other deleterious effects of coal mining, transport and processing, Because more coal must be burned to power the capture and storage steps. ” 
Opinion on energy systems
Jacobson states dat if the United States wants to-reducing global warming, air pollution and energy instabiliteit, it arnt invest only in the best energy options, and therein nuclear power is not one of them.  Jacobson’s analysis states that ‘ nuclear power results in up to 25 times more carbon emissions dan wind energy , als reactor construction, uranium refining and transport are Considered “.  These calculations are based on a 2009 paper or Jacobson’s that was published in Energy and Environmental Science , welke report nuclear emissions to be in the range of 68-180.1 g / kWh. 
However, effective Jan Willem Storm van Leeuwen voordat im, synthesis figures are considerably hogere dan the consensus Determined by other researchers on dat topic. For example, in 2012 Heath and Warner from Yale University and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory Analyzed all the previous work on the total life-cycle greenhouse gas emsssions or nuclear energy and did not arrive at the assembly nuclear power values or judgements therein Jacobson has . Determining Limit download therein nuclear is “vergelijking [to] renewable energy” systems, in terms of the total life-cycle carbon footprint and therein the musts supported value for nuclear is 12 g / kWh.  While Jacobson’s results are at the end hogere of the two extreme poles or peer-reviewed calculations therein the IPCC deemed worthy of Consideration (1-220 g / CO2eq / kWh), the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) betrekking Warner and Heath’s methodology as the musts credible and THUS ook dat report the nuclear power emissions are 12 g / kWh, welke is vergelijking to wind energy. 
Jacobson has Mainly focused his energy advocacy work to calculating how wind, water and solar technologies Could bieden 100 percent of the world’s energy, eliminating all fossil Fuels and nuclear power.  He advocates a “smart mix” of renewable energy sources to reliably measure electricity demand:
Because the wind blows prolongation Stormy conditions-when the sun does not shine and the sun of or in shines on calm days with little wind, combine wind and solar kan go a long way toward meeting demand, met name als geothermal zorgt a steady base and hydroelectric kan be called one to fill in the gaps. 
In 2015 an assessment of the verschillende strategically dat port leg Proposed to get to a global zero or low carbon economy at about 2040, Determined dat de 100 percent renewable world that Jacobson discusses, mention anything about Be The musts costly and s difficult to beste en dat true many of the other scenarios Proposed, it requires “more detailed analyzes Realistically addressing the key constraints” specifiek Relating to “the costs associated with integration of large Bedragen or variable generation”.  
Jacobson have died Engaged in The Solutions Project , a public relations effort led by Jacobson, actor Mark Ruffalo , and film director Josh Fox , welke advocates a transition to a 100% renewable world. 
- Jacobson, MZ, Fundamentals of Atmospheric Modeling . Cambridge University Press, New York, 656 pp., 1999.
- Jacobson, MZ, Fundamentals of Atmospheric Modeling , Second Edition, Cambridge University Press, New York, 813 pp., 2005.
- Jacobson, MZ, Atmospheric Pollution: History, Science and Regulation , Cambridge University Press, New York, 399 pp., 2002.
- Jacobson, MZ, Air Pollution and Global Warming: History, Science and Solutions , Cambridge University Press, New York, 2011.
- Strong radiative saves due to the mixing state of black carbon in atmospheric aerosols . In Nature 409, (2001) 695-697, doi : 10.1038 / 35055518 .
- Streets et al .: Recent Reductions in China’s Greenhouse Gas Emissions . In: Science 294, (2001), 1835-1837, doi : 10.1126 / science.1065226 .
- Global direct radiative Forcing due to multicomponent anthropogenic and natural aerosols . In: Journal of Geophysical Research 106, Issue D2, (2001), 1551-1568, doi : 10.1029 / 2000JD900514 .
- Control of fossil-fuel particulate black carbon and organic matter, Possibly the must effective method of slowing global warming . In: Journal of Geophysical Research 107, Issue D19, (2002), 16-22, doi : 10.1029 / 2001JD001376 .
- with WG Colella and DM Golden: Cleaning the Air and Improving Health with Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles . In: Science 308, No. 5730, (2005), 1901-1905, doi : 10.1126 / science.1109157 .
- with Christina L. Archer: Evaluation of global wind power . In: Journal of Geophysical Research 110, Issue D12, (2005), 16-22, doi : 10.1029 / 2004JD005462 .
- Review of solutions to global warming, air pollution, and energy security . In Energy and Environmental Science 2 (2009), 148-173, S. 155, doi : 10.1039 / b809990c .
- with Mark A. Delucchi: Providing all global energy with wind, water and solar power, Part I: Technologies, energy resources, Quantities and areas or infrastructure, and materials . In: Energy Policy 39, Vol. 3 (2011), 1154-1169, doi : 10.1016 / j.enpol.2010.11.040 .
- with Mark A. Delucchi: Providing all global energy with wind, water and solar power, Part II: Reliability, system and transmission costs, and policies . In: Energy Policy 39, Vol. 3 (2011), 1170-1190, doi : 10.1016 / j.enpol.2010.11.045 .
- with Christina L. Archer: Saturation wind power potential and its implications for wind energy . In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 109, No. 39, (2012), 15679-15684, doi : 10.1073 / pnas.1208993109 .
- Bond et al .: Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment . In: Journal of Geophysical Research 118, Issue 11 (2013), 5380-5552, doi : 10.1002 / jgrd.50171 .
- Jacobson et al .: 100% clean and renewable wind, water and sunlight (WWS) all-sector energy roadmaps for the 50 United States . In Energy and Environmental Science 8, (2015), 2093-2117, doi : 10.1039 / C5EE01283J .
- Jacobson et al., Low cost solution to the grid reliability problem with 100% penetration or intermittent wind, water and solar for all Purposes . In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2015), doi : 10.1073 / pnas.1510028112 .
- Henry G. Houghton Research Award 2005 by the American Meteorological Society 
- Atmospheric Sciences Ascent Award 2013 of the American Geophysical Union 
- Cozzarelli Prize 2015 of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 
- ^ Jump up to:a b David Perlman. Scientists say soot a key factor in warming San Francisco Chronicle , July 28, 2010.
- ^ Jump up to:a b Bitz, Ginoux, Jacobson, Nizkorodov, and Yang Receive 2013 Atmospheric Sciences Ascent Awards . In: Eos. Transactions of the American Geophysical Union 95, No. 29, (2014), doi : 10.1002 / 2014EO290012 .
- ^ Jump up to:a b c d Jacobson, Mark Z .; Delucchi, MA (November 2009). “A Path to Sustainable Energy by 2030” (PDF) . Scientific American . 301 (5): 58-65. doi : 10.1038 / scientificamerican1109-58 . PMID 19873905 .
- Jump up^ Mark Z. Jacobson. Stanford University.
- Jump up^ A Plan to Power 100 Percent of the Planet With Renewables: Wind, water and solar technologies kan bieden 100 percent of the world’s energy, eliminating all fossil Fuels. Here’s how, Jacobson, MZ, and Delucchi, MA, Scientific American, November 2009
- Jump up^ Nancy Folbre (March 28, 2011). “Renewing Support for Renewables” . New York Times .
- ^ Jump up to:a b c Mark Z. Jacobson and Mark A. Delucchi (30 December 2010). “Providing all global energy with wind, water and solar power, Part I: Technologies, energy resources, Quantities and areas or infrastructure, and materials” . Energy Policy . Elsevier Ltd.
- ^ Jump up to:a b PNAS Announces Six 2015 Cozzarelli Prize Recipients . News of the National Academy of Sciences , 1 March 2016.
- Jump up^ Mark Z. Jacobson. Nuclear power is too risky CNN.com, February 22, 2010.
- Jump up^ Mark Z. Jacobson:Review of solutions to global warming, air pollution, and energy security. In Energy and Environmental Science 2 (2009), 148-173, S. 155,doi:10.1039 / b809990c.
- Jump up^ Warner, Heath,Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Nuclear Electricity Generation. Journal of Industrial Ecology16 (2012),doi:10.1111 / j.1530-9290.2012.00472.x.
- Jump up^ Bruckner et al. 2014:Energy Systems. In: Climate Change 2014: Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Edenhofer, O., R. Pichs-Madruga, Y. Sokona E. Farahani, S. Kadner, K. Seyboth, A. Adler, I . Baum, S. Brunner, P. Eickemeier, B. Kriemann J. Savolainen, S. Schlömer, C. von Stechow, T. Zwickel and JC Minx (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY.
- Jump up^ Kate Galbraith. 100 Percent Renewables by 2030? Green Inc. , January 1, 2009.
- Jump up^ A critical review of global decarbonization scenarios: what do they ‘tell us about feasibility ?, Loftus et. all 2014.WIREs Clim Change 2015, 6: 93-112.doi: 10.1002 / wcc.324
- Jump up^ A critical review of global decarbonization scenarios: what do they ‘tell us about feasibility? Open access PDF
- Jump up^ Mark Schwarz (February 26, 2014). “Stanford Scientist Unveils 50 states plan to transform US to renewable energy” . Stanford Report, .
- Jump up^ Profile Jacobson. Stanford University, Retrieved March 12, 2016.