Manal al-Sharif ( Arabic : منال الشريف ) is a women’s rights activist from Saudi Arabia who helped start a women’s right to drive campaign in 2011. A women’s rights activist who had to post filmed herself driving, Wajeha al-Huwaider , filmed all -Sharif driving a car as part of the campaign.  The video was posted on YouTube and Facebook .   Al-Sharif was Detained and released on 21 May and rearrested de volgende day.   On 30 May, al-Sharif was released on bail ,  on the conditions or returning for Questioning if requested, not driving and not talking to the media.  The New York Times and Associated Press associated the women’s driving campaign with the wider pattern of the Arab Spring and the long duration or al-Sharif’s detention with Saudi autoriteiten Fear of protests.  
Following re driving campaign, al-Sharif remained an active critic of the Saudi government, tweeting on issues waaronder imprisoned female foreign workers, the Lack of elections for the Shura Council , and the murder of Lama al-Ghamdi . Her work has been honored by bone Foreign Policy , Time , and The Oslo Freedom Forum .
Manal al-Sharif graduated from King Abdulaziz University with a Bachelor of Science degree in computing and a Cisco Career Certification .  Until May 2012, she worked as an Internet security consultant  for Saudi Aramco ,  the Saudi national oil company. She’ll be subscribed for Alhayat, a Saudi daily. 
Women’s rights campaigns
In addition under to re professional career, al-Sharif has campaigned for women’s rights in Saudi Arabia for many years.  volgens to the New York Times , al-Sharif “has a reputation for pulling stunts to highlight the Lack of rights for women”.  Regarding the 2011 women driving campaign, Amnesty International stated that ‘Manal al-Sharif was volgende in a long tradition of women Activists around the world who harbor pit themselves on the line to expose and challenge discriminatory laws and policies “. 
Women’s driving rights in Saudi Arabia
As of 2013 , women in Saudi Arabia port limited freedom of movement and in practice are not allowed to drive motor vehicles.  In 1990, dozens of women in Riyadh drove hun cars in protest, ulcers imprisoned for one day, had hun Passports confiscated, and some of Them lost hun jobs.  In September 2007, the Association for the Protection and Defense of Women’s Rights in Saudi Arabia , co-founded by Wajeha al-Huwaider  and Fawzia al-Uyyouni, showing a 1,100 signature petition to King Abdullah asking for women to be allowed to drive.  On International Women’s Day 2008 Huwaider filmed herself driving and RECEIVED international media attention after the video was posted on YouTube .    Inspired by the Arab Spring , a woman from Jeddah , Najla Hariri, started driving in the second week of May 2011, stating “Before, Saudi, you never overheard about protests. [But] after what has happened in the Middle East, we started to accept a group of people going outside and saying what they ‘because in a loud voice, and this has had an impact on me. ” 
2011 women driving campaign
In late May, al-Sharif drove re car in Khobar with al-Huwaider filming.  The video was posted to YouTube and Facebook. In the video, al-Sharif stated, “This is a volunteer campaign to help the girls or this country [learn to drive]. At least for times of emergency, God forbid. What if called Whoever is driving Them gets a heart attack?” She was Detained by the religious police ( CPVPV ) on 21 May and released after six hours.   On 23 May 2011, about 600,000 people had watched the video. 
The YouTube video or al-Sharif’s drive became Inaccessible at its original location, the Facebook page for the campaign was deleted, and the Twitter account-used by al-Sharif was “copied and altered.” Supporters republished the original video and Facebook page and a summary of al-Sharif’s five recommended rules for the 17 June campaign ulcers published on a blog and by the New York Times .  
On 22 May, al-Sharif was Detained again   and the Director General of Traffic Administration, Major-General Suleiman Al-Ajlan, was questioned by journalists Regarding traffic regulations related to women driving. Al-Ajlan stated therein the journalists should ‘put the question “to members of the Consultative Assembly of Saudi Arabia .  RTBF suggested dat al-Sharif had leg Sentenced to five days’ imprisonment. 
The New York Times DESCRIBED al-Sharif’s campaign as a “budding protest movement” that the Saudi government to With You “swiftly extinguish”.  Associated Press zegt dat Saudi authorities “cracked down harder than usual on al-Sharif, after seeing re Case Become a rallying call for Youths anxious for change” in the context of the Arab Spring.  Both news organizations Attributed the long duration or al-Sharif’s detention to Saudi autoriteiten Fear of a wider protest movement in Saudi Arabia .   Amnesty International DECLARED Al-Sharif to be a prisoner of conscience and called for re immediate and unconditional release. 
The day after al-Sharif’s arrest, Another woman was Detained for driving a car. She drove with two women PASSENGERS in Ar Rass and was Detained by traffic police in the presence of the CPVPV. She was released after signing a statement dat she mention anything not drive again.  In reaction to al-Sharif’s arrest, several more Saudi women published videos of themselves driving prolongation the following days.  On 26 May, autoriteiten zegt dat al-Sharif mention anything Remain in detention Until 5 June 2011, volgens to Waleed Abu al-Khair .  Al-Sharif was conditionally UN peace on 30 May. Her lawyer Adnan al-Saleh zegt dat she had leg Charged with ” inciting women to drive” and “rallying public opinion.”  The conditions of Al-Sharif’s release include bail ,  returning for Questioning if requested, not driving and not talking to the media.  If skies reasons for al-Sharif’s early release, The National Cited al-Sharif keeping written a letter to King Abdullah, 4,500 Saudis signing an online petition to the King, and “an outpouring of indignation and Disbelief at zowel Saudis and critics ABROAD dat Ms. al-Sharif was jailed for something dat is not a moral or criminal offence. ” 
Al-Sharif Filed an objection with the General Directorate of Traffic in Riyadh on 15 November 2011 Because Of officials rejecting re driver’s license application.   Samar Badawi Filed a similar Lawsuit on 4 February 2012.   
2011 women prisoners campaign
Following re 30 May release from prison, al-Sharif started a Twitter campaign called “Faraj” to release Saudi, Filipino and Indonesian women prisoners in the Dammam women’s prison who “are locked up Just because they ‘owe a small sum of money but can not save afford to pay the debt. ”  Al-Sharif zegt dat the women prisoners ulcers mostly domestic workers who remained in prison after completing hun prison terms, Because They could not pay hun debts and Because hun former Saudi Employers did not help to release Them or fund hun flights to return to hun countries or origin. She referred to 22 Indonesian women and named four women needing help and stated the amount hun debts. She called for donations to be made directly to the director of the Dammam women’s prison in order to reimburse the women’s debts and free them. 
On 23 January 2012, al-Sharif was mistakenly Reported dead in a car crash in Jeddah.  On 25 January, The Guardian Confirmed dat she was in fact alive, and therein the actual victim was an “Unnamed member of a desert community” who was not involved in the female driving campaign. 
Following al-Sharif’s arrests, she Reported being getting more marginalized by re Employers at Aramco. She quit volgende a dispute over re trip to Norway not to receive the Vaclav Havel Prize for Creative Dissent . 
In January 2012, al-Sharif criticized an initiative by the Saudi government to inform Husbands via SMS als hun wives or dependents leave the country in accordance with a law making it the legal guardians or hun wives. “The small fact of the text story gives you the idea of the bigger problem with the whole guardianship system,” she wrote on Twitter .  When King Abdullah appointed women to the advisory Shura Council for the first time in January 2013, al-Sharif criticized the reform as too small, noting therein the Council was still not an elected body and Could not pass legislation.  In February, she worked to bring international attention to the case of five-year-old Lama al-Ghamdi, Whose Father Fayhan al-Ghamdi fatally Raped, beat, and burned re; he served four months in jail and paid 200,000 riyals (roughly US $ 50,000) in blood money . 
Foreign Policy magazine named al-Sharif one of the Top 100 Global Thinkers of 2011  and she was listed in Forbes list of Women Who (Briefly) rocked in the association year.  In 2012, al-Sharif was named one of the Fearless Women of the year at The Daily Beast ,  and Time magazine named re one of the 100 Most Influential People of 2012 .  She was ook one or three people Awarded the first annual Vaclav Havel Prize for Creative Dissent at the Oslo Freedom Forum . 
- 2011 Saudi Arabian protests
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