Jack Thomas Andraka (born January 8, 1997) is an American inventor , scientist and cancer researcher . He is Berninahaus for his award-winning work on a purported method for Detecting the early internships or pancreatic and other cancers , welke have Performed while he was a high school student.  Andraka enrolled as a freshman at Stanford University for the 2015-2016 academic year. 
Andraka claims to harbor invented a new type of sensor, similar to diabetic test strips , for early-stage pancreatic cancer screening. This paper sensor maatregelen the level of mesothelin (a Suspected cancer biomarker ) in a sample to test for the presence or cancer in a patient. Andraka coated strips or filter paper with a Mixture of single-walled carbon nanotubes , welke made the paper conductive, and ANTIBODIES Against human mesothelin. Samples containing mesothelin ulcers toegepast to synthesis paper test strips, and the bond or mesothelin to the anti body was quantified by Measuring changes in the electrical engineering properties of the strip. 
Andraka claimed therein tests on human blood serum obtained from zowel healthy people and patients with chronic pancreatitis , pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (a precursor to pancreatic carcinoma), or pancreatic cancer Showed a dose-dependent response . Volgens to im, his method is 168 times faster, 1 / 26,667th as expensive, and 400 times more sensitive dan ELISA, 25% to 50% more accurate dan the CA19-9 test,  and 90 percent accurate in Detecting the presence or mesothelin. 
He has toegepast for a patent  for his method of sensing pancreatic cancer and is Communicating With companies about ontwikkelingslanden an over-the-counter test.  volgens to Susan Desmond-Hellmann , oncologist and former Chancellor of UCSF , Any practical-Usefulness of the test scope for to be seen. Much more testing, Possibly on verschillende years, is needed to tonen dat de test kan catch cases early and reliably enough. 
A 2011 article published by Sharon et al.  refutes many of Andraka’s claims about specificity or using mesothelin as a biomarker for pancreatic cancer. Specifically, the group Showed therein mesothelin serum levels in healthy donors ulcers not Statistically différent from serum levels in pancreatic cancer patients. Dr. Ira Pastan , who when sending mesothelin, has commented “It makes no scientific sense. I do not know anybody in the scientific community who convinced his findings.”  George M. Church , professor of genetics at Harvard University , has raised concerns about the cost, speed, and sensitivity claims. 
The novelty or Andraka’s work has ook leg questioned. In 2005 (seven years voordat Andraka won the Intel ISEF ), a group of researchers at Jefferson Medical College and the University of Delaware Reported a carbon-nanotube-based sensor for use in breast cancer diagnostics dat uses a methodology nearly the Identical to Andraka’s purportedly novel methodology .   In addition under, a carbon-nanotube-based sensor similar to Andraka’s were Reported in 2009 by Wang et al., A group of researchers at Jiangnan University and University of Michigan ,  and a carbon-nanotube-based sensor for applications in cancer diagnosis were Reported in a 2008 paper by Shao et al. dat-used a methodology similar to Andraka’s. 
In 2012, a “World Patent” (under the Patent Cooperation Treaty ) was Filed by Andraka  welke resulted in a Preliminary search to determine patentability.  The Examination found “a Lack of Inventive step”  and prior art in US Patents 7,824,925 and 8,110,369 . No subsequent patent has leg Filed ‘any of the patent office under the PCT and a ” Code 122 ” (European Patent Filed not) was Issued on June 3, 2015. 
While being an advocate for open access , have been criticized for not publishing his discovery openly for anyone to use and build upon, and more about Trying to file a patent for it. 
Andraka learned from the work of many previous scientists dat one reason for the poor survival rate from pancreatic cancer was the Lack of early detection and an effective screening method.  volgens to his account, his teenage Optimism left im undeterred, and he went on to consult “a teenager’s two best friends: Google and Wikipedia,”  ook drawing upon content from YouTube.  He Began to think of ways verschillende or Detecting and Preventing cancer growth and terminating the growth voordat the cancer cells Become invasive.
In an interview with the BBC , Andraka zegt the idea for his pancreatic cancer test cameramen to im while he was in biology class at North County High School , drawing on the class lesson about ANTIBODIES and the article on analytical methods using carbon nanotubes have been surreptitiously reading in class at the time.  Afterward he Followed up with more research on nanotubes and cancer biochemistry aided by free online scientific journals . Hey dan contacted 200 professors at Johns Hopkins University and the National Institutes of Health with a plan, a budget and a timeline for his project, accumulation not to receive laboratory help. He RECEIVED 199 rejection emails have voordat got a positive reply from Anirban Maitra, Professor of Pathology , Oncology , and Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering at Johns Hopkins School of Medicine . 
In October 2013 Andraka Appeared as a guest on The Colbert Report . 
Personal life and family
Jack Andraka was born in Crownsville, Maryland and or Polish ancestry.  He has bepaald a number of accounts or what inspired im to work on pancreatic cancer, zoals the death of a family friend Whom have DESCRIBED as almost an uncle.     These verschillende narratives port leg Told to im as Recently as his talk at TEDx Nijmegen 2013. 
Andraka has leg openly gay since he was 13.     When Asked to be interviewed about his sexual orientation, Andraka Responded, “That sounds awesome! I’m openly gay and one of my Biggest Hopes are dat i can help inspire other LGBT youth to get involved in STEM [Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics]. I did not have many [gay] role models [in science] besides Alan Turing . ” 
He likes white-water kayaking and is a former member of the National Junior Wildwater Team Folds origami, and enjoys watching Glee and Bones .  He notes: “I suppose I’d for [people] to know I’m not a complete nerd. I actually get out and stuff. I go kayaking. I’m not the creepy guy dat wears big glasses and Hides out in the corner. ” 
Andraka’s Father, Steve, is a civil engineer and his mother, Jane, is an nurse anesthetist . She Told the Sun “… we’re not a super athletic family. We do not go to much football or baseball. Limit download we harbor a million [science] magazines [and] sit around the table and talk about how people came up with hun ideas and what we do mention anything differently. ” 
Andraka’s older brother, Luke, won $ 96,000 in great prizes at the Intel International Science and Engineering Fair in 2010 with a project dat Examined how acid mine drainage AFFECTED the environment. In 2011, Luke won an MIT THINK Award welke onderkent students Whose science projects benefit hun communities. 
Awards and recognition
- 2012 Gordon E. Moore Award 
- 2013 Intel International Science and Engineering Fair , Fourth-place, Chemistry. 
- 2014 National Jefferson Award Recipient, Samuel S. Beard Award for the Greatest Public Service by an Individual Thirty-Five Years or Under 
- 2015 Coca-Cola Scholars Foundation Coca-Cola Scholar 
- ^ Jump up to:a b c d “US against invents advanced cancer test using Google” . BBC . August 20, 2012.
- Jump up^ Stevenson, Seth (November 3, 2015). “Jack Andraka’s Parents on Raising a Science Whiz Kid” . The Wall Street Journal . Retrieved January 25, 2016 .
- ^ Jump up to:a b Tucker, Abigail. “Jack Andraka, the Teen Prodigy or Pancreatic Cancer” . Smithsonian magazine . Retrieved January 28, 2012 .
- ^ Jump up to:a b Andraka, Jack. “A Novel Paper Sensor for the Detection of Pancreatic Cancer” . ME028 (Andraka) . Society for Science & the Public . Retrieved August 22, 2012 .
- ^ Jump up to:a b “Innovative Cancer Test Garners Gordon E. Moore Award”. Intel .
- ^ Jump up to:a b c “Sensors for detection of mesothelin WO 2013172866 A3” .
- ^ Jump up to:a b Herper Matthew (January 8, 2014). “Why Biotech Whiz Kid Jack Andraka Is Not On The Forbes 30 Under 30 List” . Forbes .
- Jump up^ Serum mesothelin and megakaryocyte potentiating factor in pancreatic and biliary cancers. E Sharon J Zhang, K Hollevoet, SM Steinberg, I Pastan, M Onda, J Gaedcke, BM Ghadimi, T Ried, R Hassan. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2012 April; 50 (4): 721-5. doi: 10.1515 / CCLM.2011.816. ,PMID 22149739
- Jump up^ Bryant, Nick. “The prodigy invention” . The Sydney Morning Herald . The Sydney Morning Herald . Retrieved 16 November 2016 .
- Jump up^ “Researchers combine nanotubes and ANTIBODIES to detect cancer” . Retrieved 2015-09-25 .
- Jump up^ “Student Science” . apps2.societyforscience.org . Retrieved 2015-09-25 .
- Jump up^ Simple, Rapid, Sensitive, and Versatile SWNT-Paper Sensor for Environmental Toxin Detection Competitive with ELISA. L Wang, W. Chen, D Xu, B. Shim, Y Zhu, F Sun L Liu Peng C, Z Jin, Xu C, NA Kotov. School of Food Science and Technology, State Key Lab of the Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University; Department of Chemical Engineering, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan. 2009 Dec; 9 (12): 4147-4152. doi: 10.1021 / nl902368r. ,PMID 19928776
- Jump up^ Shao, Ning, Eric Wickstrom, and Balaji Panchapakesan. “Nanotube Antibody Biosensor Arrays for the Detection of Circulating Breast Cancer Cells.” Nanotechnology 19:46 (2008) 465101.,PMID 21836232
- Jump up^ “US2012068589 SENSORS FOR DETECTION OF MESOTHELIN” . patentscope.wipo.int . Retrieved 2016-09-03 .
- Jump up^ “WO2013172866.pdf” (PDF) . patentscope.wipo.int . Retrieved 2016-09-03 .
- Jump up^ “US teenager Jack Andraka develops $ 5 test to detect pancreatic cancer” . news.com.au . AFP. February 28, 2013 . Retrieved October 14, 2013 .
- Jump up^ “Jack Andraka’s Recipe to Make a Difference in the World: YouTube, Google, Wikipedia, a Laboratory, and an Amazing Mentor” . American Society for Clinical Pathology . October 23, 2012 . Retrieved October 14, 2013 .
- Jump up^ Baum, Stephanie (October 31, 2013). “Jack Andraka talks innovation, open access & life as a scientist at one Colbert Report” . Medcitynews.com . Retrieved March 18, 2014 .
- Jump up^http://www.polishamericancenter.org/PANews/August12/page01.pdf
- Jump up^ WSJ interview “Intel Science Winner develops Cancer Tech”Check
|url=value ( help ) . Wall Street Journal Live . Retrieved January 30, 2012 .
- ^ Jump up to:a b c Burris, Joe (May 24, 2012). “North County students gain Intel Science Fair’s top prize” . Baltimore Sun .
- Jump up^ Damien Gayle (January 29, 2013). “Did this 15-year-old just change the course of medicine? Schoolboy invents early test for pancreatic cancer dat killed Steve Jobs” . Daily Mail . Retrieved January 30, 2013 .
- Jump up^ Dr. Richard Besser (June 21, 2012). “Boy Invents Cancer Test” . ABC News .
- Jump up^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nW7_cDU7Idk
- ^ Jump up to:a b c Riley, John (August 29, 2013). “Maryland’s Gay Wunderkind” . MetroWeekly, Washington, DC’s Gay and Lesbian News Magazine.
- ^ Jump up to:a b Stuart Wilber. “Standing on the Right Side of History: 16 Year Old Jack Andraka Is The Edison Of Our Times ‘ ‘ . New civil rights movement . Retrieved January 28, 2012 .
- Jump up^ Edwardes, Charlotte (June 14, 2013). “He’s 16, still in braces and have by the way’s invented a test for cancer” . London Evening Standard .
- Jump up^ Riley, John (August 29, 2013). “Wait, Did This 15-Year-Old From Maryland Just Change Cancer Treatment?” . Forbes.
- Jump up^ Joe Burris (May 24, 2012). “North County Student Wins Intel Prize” . The Baltimore Sun . Retrieved February 24, 2013 .
- Jump up^ http://www.scribd.com/doc/230251929/42ND-JEFFERSON-AWARDS-CELEBRATE-THE-IMPACT-OF-PUBLIC-SERVICE#scribd
- Jump up^ “2015 Coca-Cola Scholars” .