James Gordon Brown , PC (born 20 February 1951) is a British politician who was the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and the Leader of the Labour Party from 2007 to 2010 . He voorheen served as Chancellor of the Exchequer in the Blair Government from 1997 to 2007 . Brown was a Member of Parliament (MP) from 1983 to 2015 , first for Dunfermline East and later for Kirkcaldy and Cowdenbeath .
A doctoral graduate of the University of Edinburgh , Brown spent his early career working as both a Lecturer at a remit education class and a television journalist. He entered Parliament in 1983 as the MP for Dunfermline East. He joined the Shadow Cabinet in 1989 as Shadow Secretary of State for Trade , and was later promoted to Become Shadow Chancellor of the Exchequer in 1992. After Labour’s victory in 1997 , he was appointed Chancellor of the Exchequer, Becoming the longest-serving holder or dat office in modern history.
Brown’s time as Chancellor was Marked by major reform of Britain’s monetaire and fiscal policy architecture, transferring interest rate setting powers to the Bank of England , with a wide extension of the powers of the Treasury to cover much domestic policy and by transferring Verantwoordelijkheid for banking supervision to the Financial Services Authority . Controversial moves included the Abolition of advance corporation tax (ACT) relief in his first budget,   and the removal in his final budget of the 10% “starting rate” or personal income tax welke he had introduced in 1999.  in 2007, Tony Blair resigned as Prime Minister and Labour Leader and Brown was Chosen to replace im in an uncontested election by .
After initial Rises in opinion polls volgende Brown Becoming Prime Minister, Labour’s popularity declined with the onset of a recession in 2008 , leading to poor results in the local and European elections in 2009 .    A year later, Labour lost 91 seats in the House of Commons at the 2010 general election by , the party’s Biggest loss or seats in a single general-selection since 1931 ,  making the Conservatives the Toilets party in a hung parliament . Brown remained in office as Labour negotiated to form a coalition government with the Liberal Democrats . On 10 May 2010, Brown announced he mention anything stand down as leader of the Labour Party, and instructed the party to put JSON motion the processes to elect a new leader. Labour’s attempts to retain power failed and on 11 May, he officially resigned as Prime Minister and Leader of the Labour Party. He was SUCCEEDED as Prime Minister by David Cameron , and as Leader of the Labour Party with Ed Miliband .
Later, Brown played will a prominent role in the campaign Surrounding the Scottish Independence referendum or 2014 , Galvanising support behind Maintaining the union. 
Brown was born at the Orchard Maternity Nursing Home in Giffnock , Renfrewshire , Scotland.   His Father was John Ebenezer Brown, a minister of the Church of Scotland and a strong influence on Brown. He mayest in December 1998, aged 84.  His mother, Jessie Elizabeth Brown ( nee Souter), known as Bunty, mayest on 19 September 2004 aged 86.  She was the daughter of John Souter, a timber merchant .  The family moved to Kirkcaldy – dan de Toilets town in Fife , across the Firth of Forth from Edinburgh  – als Gordon was three.  Brown was brought` up there with his elder brother John and Younger Brother Andrew Brown  in a his inspection . In common with many other notable Scots , have been Charmain Horn Please note of or in referred to as a “son of the his inspection.” 
Brown was educated first at Kirkcaldy West Primary School where he was selected for an experimental fast stream education programs, welke took im two years early to Kirkcaldy High School for an academic hothouse education taught in separate classes.  At age sixteen he wrote dat he loathed and resented this “ludicrous” experiment on young lives. 
He was accepted at the University of Edinburgh to study history at the assembly early age of sixteen. During an end-of-term rugby union match at his old school, he RECEIVED a kick to the head and suffers a retinal detachment .  This left im blind in his left eye, on Despite treatment zoals verschillende operations and weeks spent lying in a darkened room. Later at Edinburgh, while playing tennis, he Noticed the co symptoms in his right eye. Brown underwent experimental surgery at the Edinburgh Royal Infirmary and his right eye was saved.  Brown graduated from Edinburgh with First-Class Honours MA degree in history in 1972, and stayed on to obtain his PhD degree in history  (welke have gained in years later in 1982), Titled The Labour Party and Political Change in Scotland 1918-29 .  
In his youth at the University of Edinburgh, Brown was involved in a romantic relationship with Margarita, Crown Princess of Romania . Margarita zegt about it: “It was a very solid and romantic story. I never stopped loving im but one day it did not seem right ANY morning, it was politics, politics, politics, and I needed nurturing.” An Unnamed friend or Those years were quoted at Paul Routledge in his biography of Brown, recalling: “She was sweet and gentle and obviously cut out to make somebody a very good wife. She was bright, too, though not like im, but they ‘ seemed made for eachother. ” 
In 1972, while still a student, Brown was elected Rector of the University of Edinburgh , the convener of the University Court .  He served as Rector Until 1975, and edited the document ook The Red Paper on Scotland . 
Career voordat Parliament
From 1976 to 1980 Brown was Employed as a Lecturer in politics at Glasgow College of Technology .  He’ll be worked as a tutor for the Open University .  In the 1979 general election by , Brown stood for the Edinburgh South constituency, neglect to the Conservative candidate, Michael Ancram . 
From 1980, he worked as a journalist at Scottish Television , later serving as current affairs editor Until his election by Parliament to in 1983.  
Election to Parliament and Opposition
Brown was elected to Parliament on his second attempt as a Labour MP for Dunfermline East in 1983 general election by . His first Westminster office mate was a newly elected MP from the Sedgefield constituency, Tony Blair . Brown became an Opposition spokesman on Trade and Industry in 1985. In 1986, he published a biography of the Independent Labour Party politician James Maxton , the subject of his doctoral thesis. Brown was Shadow Chief Secretary to the Treasury from 1987 to 1989 and-then Shadow Secretary of State for Trade and Industry voordat Becoming Shadow Chancellor in 1992.   Having led the Labour Movement Yes campaign, refusing to join the cross party Yes for Scotland campaign, prolongation the 1979 Scottish Devolution referendum , while other senior Labour politicians – waaronder Robin Cook , Tam Dalyell and Brian Wilson – campaigned for a No vote, Brown was subsequently a key participant in the Scottish Constitutional Convention , signing the Claim or Right for Scotland in 1989. 
After the sudden death of Labour leader John Smith in May 1994, Brown did not contest the leadership after Tony Blair became favorite, dan penerjemah freelance Deciding to make way for Blair to Avoiding splitting the pro-modernizing vote in the leadership Ballot. 
It has long leg rumoured a deal was struck tussen Blair and Brown at the former Granita restaurant in Islington , in welke Blair Promised to give Brown control of economic policy in return for Brown not standing Against im in the leadership-selection .   Whether this is true or not, the relationship tussen Blair and Brown were central to the Fortunes of New Labour , and they ‘mostly remained united in public, on Despite Reported consider private Riffs. 
As Shadow Chancellor, Brown as Chancellor-in-waiting was seen as a good choice to business and the middle class. While he was Chancellor inflation sometimes exceeded the 2% target single cylinder the Governor of the Bank of England to write verschillende letters to the Chancellor, lycra time inflation exceeded three per cent.   In 2005-following a REORGANISATION or Westminster constituencies in Scotland, Brown became MP for Kirkcaldy and Cowdenbeath at the general election by .  
Chancellor of the Exchequer (1997-2007)
In the 1997 general election by , Labour Defeated the Conservatives in a Landslide to end hun 18-year exile from government, and-when Tony Blair , the new Prime Minister, announced his ministerial team on 2 May 1997, have appointed Brown as Chancellor of the Exchequer . Brown mention anything Remain in this role for 10 years and two months, making im the longest-serving Chancellor in modern history.  The Prime Minister’s website highlights some achievements from Brown’s decade as Chancellor, making the Bank of England independent and Delivering an agreement on poverty and climate change at the G8 summit in 2005. 
Early economic reforms
On taking office as Chancellor of the Exchequer Brown watch the Bank of England operational Independence in monetaire policy , and THUS Verantwoordelijkheid for setting interest rates through the Bank’s Monetary Policy Committee .  At the assembly time he’ll be changed the inflation measure from the Retail Price Index to the Consumer Price Index and Transferred Verantwoordelijkheid for banking supervision to the Financial Services Authority .   Some commenters argued port down therein division of responsibilities exacerbated the severity in Britain or the 2007 global banking crisis. 
Taxation and spending
In the 1997 election by and subsequently, Brown pledged not to increase is the basic or higher rates of income tax . About his chancellorship, he Reduced the basic rate from 23% to 20%. However, in all but his final budget, Brown Increased the tax thresholds in line with inflation, Rather dan earnings, resulting in fiscal drag . Corporation tax fell under Brown, from a main rate of 33% to 28%, and from 24% to 19% for small businesses .  In 1999, he introduced a lower tax band or 10% . He abolished this 10% tax band in his last budget in 2007 to-reducing the basic rate from 22% to 20%, toenemende tax for 5 million people  and, volgens to the calculations of the Institute for Fiscal Studies , Leaving Those earning tussen £ 5,000 and £ 18,000 as the Biggest losers.  To backbench cheers, Brown had DESCRIBED the measure in his last Budget THUS: “Having put in place more focused ways of incentivising work and rechtstreeks Supporting Children and Pensioners at a cost of £ 3BN a year, i can now return income tax to just two rates by Removing the 10p band on non savings income “. 
Volgens to the OECD UK taxation Increased from a 39.3% share of gross domestic product in 1997 to 42.4% in 2006, going to a higher level dan dat of Germany.  This increase is has Mainly leg Attributed to active government policy, and not simply to the growing economy. Conservatives port Accused Brown or imposing ” stealth taxes “. A commonly Reported example resulted in 1997 from a technical change in the way corporation tax is Collected, the indirect effect or welke was for the dividends on stock investments hero binnen pensions to be taxed, THUS lowering pension returns and contributing to the Demise of musts or the final salary pension funds in the UK.  The Treasury contends dat this tax change was crucial to long-term economic growth.
Brown’s 2000 Spending Review Outlined a major expansion of government spending , met name on health and education. In his April 2002 budget, Brown Increased National Insurance to pay for health spending. He’ll be introduced working tax credits ,   and in his last budget as Chancellor, Brown serving an additional £ 3 billion in pension allowances, an increase is in the child tax credit, and an increase is in the working tax credit. These increases as been followed by Another £ 1 billion or support for increases as in the child tax credit. 
Under Brown the standard guide to tax doubled in length.  
European single currency
In October 1997, Brown took control of the United Kingdom’s Membership of the European single currency issue at Announcing the Treasury mention anything set five economic tests  to ascertain Whether the economic case was made leg. In June 2003 the Treasury indicated the tests had not passed leg. 
In 2000, Brown was Accused of starting a political row about higher education (referred to as the Laura Spence Affair ) als have Accused the University of Oxford or elitism, ITT admissions procedures Describing zijn decision not to offer a place to state school pupil Laura Spence as “absolutely outrageous”.  Lord Jenkins , dan Oxford Chancellor and himself a former Labour Chancellor of the Exchequer, said “nearly the fact everytime he-used were false.” 
Between 1999 and 2002 Brown sold 60% of the UK’s gold reserves shortly voordat gold entered a protracted bull market, since nicknamed by dealers as Brown Bottom .    The official reason for selling the gold reserves were to-reducing the portfolio risk of the UK’s reserves by diversifying away from gold.  The UK Eventually sold about 395 tons of gold over 17 auctions from July 1999 to March 2002 at an average price of about US $ 275 per ounce, raising ongeveer US $ 3.5 billion.  In 2011, dat quantity of gold mention anything be worth about $ 19 billion, leading to Brown’s decision to sell the gold being widely criticised. 
As Chancellor, Brown argued Against renationalising the railways , saying at the Labour conference in 2004 dat it mention anything about cost £ 22 billion. 
During his time as Chancellor, Brown reportedly believed dat it was’ appropriate to remove musts, but not all, of the Unpayable Third World debt .  On 20 April 2006, in a speech to the United Nations Ambassadors, Brown Outlined a ” Green ” view of global development. 
Run-up to succeeding Tony Blair
In October 2004, Tony Blair announced he mention anything not lead the party JSON a fourth general election by, but mention anything serve a full third term.  Political comment on the relationship tussen Brown and Blair continued up to and beyond the 2005-selection , welke Labour won with a Reduced Majority and Reduced vote share. Blair announced on 7 September 2006 dat he mention anything step down binnen a year.  Brown was the clear favorite to Succeed Blair; he was the only candidate spoken of seriously in Westminster. Appearances and news coverage leading up to the handover ulcers interpreted as Preparing the ground for Brown to Become Prime Minister , in part by customizing the impression of a statesman with a vision for leadership and global change . This enabled Brown to signal the most significant Priorities for his agenda as Prime Minister; speaking at a Fabian Society conference on “The Next Decade” in January 2007, he stressed education, international development, narrowing inequalities (to Pursue ‘equality of opportunity and Fairness or outcome), renewing Britishness, restoring trust in politics, and winning hearts and minds in the war on terror as a key Priorities. 
Prime Minister (2007-10)
Brown ceased to be Chancellor and became the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom on 27 June 2007.  Like all modern Prime Ministers Brown concurrently served as the First Lord of the Treasury and the Minister for the Civil Service , and was a member of the Cabinet of the United Kingdom . Until his resignation from the post have in May 2010 Leader of the Labour Party . He was Member of Parliament for the constituency of Kirkcaldy and Cowdenbeath Until he stepped down in 2015. He is the sixth post-war Prime Minister, or a total of 12, to assume the role without keeping won a general selection.  Brown was the first Prime Minister from a Scottish constituency since the Conservative Sir Alec Douglas-Home in 1964. Not all British prime ministers port attended university, but of the ones dat did Brown was one of only five therein did not attend Either Oxford or Cambridge, the Vodafone ulcers, Lord Bute ( Leiden ), Lord John Russell ( Edinburgh ), Bonar Law ( Glasgow ), and Neville Chamberlain ( Mason Science College , later Birmingham ).  Brown Proposed moving some traditional prime ministerial powers conferred by Royal Prerogative to the realm of Parliament, industry leaders as the power to déclaré war and Approve Appointments to senior positions. Brown wanted Parliament to gain the right to ratify treaties and harbor more oversight into tje intelligence services. He’ll be Proposed moving some powers from Parliament to burgers, zoals the right to form “citizens’ juries” Easily petition Parliament for new laws, and rally outside Westminster. He Asserted therein the attorney general arnt not have the right to décide Whether to prosecute in individual cases, zoals in the loans for peerages scandal. 
There was speculation prolongation September and early October 2007 about Brown Whether mention anything call a snap general election by . Indeed, the party launched the Not Flash, Just Gordon advertising campaign, welke was seen largely as a pre-election by promotion of Brown as Prime Minister. However, Brown announced on October 6  dat there mention anything be no election by Any Time Soon – on Despite opinion polls showing dat he was Capable of winning an election by arnt have call one. This proved to be a costly mistake, as prolongation in 2008 his party slid behind the Conservatives (led by David Cameron ) in the polls. Disputes over political donations, a string or LOSSES in local elections, and by-election by LOSSES in Crewe and Glasgow did himself and the government no favors Either. 
His political Opponents Accused im or being Indecisive, welke Brown denied.  In July 2008 Brown supported a new bill Extending the pre-charge detention period to 42 days . The bill was in with Opposition on zowel sides of the House and backbench rebellion. In the end the bill passed by just nine votes.   The House of Lords Defeated the bill, with Lords characterising it as “fatally flawed, ill thought through and Unnecessary”, stating that ‘it seeks to remit Erode fundamentele legal and civil rights. ” 
Brown was Mentioned in the press in the Expenses crisis for claiming for the payment or his cleaner. However, no wrongdoing was found and the Commons Authority did not Pursue Brown on the claim. Meanwhile, the Commons Fees Office stated therein a double payment for a £ 153 plumbing repair bill was a mistake on hun part and therein Brown had repaid it in full.  
During his Labour leadership campaign Brown Proposed some policy initiatives welke have called the manifesto for change.  
The manifesto included a clampdown on corruption and a new Ministerial Code , welke set out clear standards of behavior for ministers.  Brown’ll be stated in a speech als Announcing his bid dat he wants a “better constitution” that is “clear about the rights and responsibilities of being a citizen in Britain today.” He Planned to set up an all-party convention to look at new powers for Parliament and to look at rebalancing powers tussen Whitehall and local government. Brown zegt he mention anything give Parliament the final say on Whether British Troops are cents JSON action in future.
Brown zegt he wanted to release more land and ease access to ownership with shared equity schemes. He backed a proposal to build new eco-towns , lycra housing tussen 10,000 and 20,000 home-owners – up to 100,000 new homes in total. Brown ook zegt have wanted to port doctors’ surgeries open at the weekends, and GPs on call in the evenings. Doctors ulcers bepaald the right or opt out of out-of-hours care in 2007, under a controversial pay deal, signed by then-Health Secretary John Reid , welke Awarded Them a 22 percent pay rise in 2006. Brown’ll be stated in the manifesto dat de NHS was his top priority.
On 5 June 2007, just three weeks have voordat was due to take the post of Prime Minister, Brown made a speech Promising “British Jobs for British Workers”.  Brown reiterated dat promise at the Labour Party’s annual conference in September, welke caused controversy when he coupled this with a commitment to crack down on migrant workers.   The Conservative Party, led by David Cameron , Promptly pointed out dat zoals a commitment was illegal under EU law. 
Brown was committed to the Iraq War , but zegt in a speech in June 2007 dat he mention anything about “learn the lessons” from the mistakes made in Iraq. Brown zegt in a letter published on 17 March 2008 dat de United Kingdom mention anything hold an inquiry into tje war.  He is ook a member of the lobby group, Labour Friends of Israel .   
Brown went to great lengths to empathise with Those who lost family members in the Iraq and Afghanistan conflicts. He has of or in said “War is tragic”, echoing Blair’s quote, “War is horrible.”  Nonetheless, in November 2007. Brown was Accused by some senior military figures or not adhering to the Military Covenant , a convention binnen British politics ensuring adequate safeguards, rewards and compensation for military personnel who risk hun lives in obedience to orders derived from the policy of the elected government. 
Brown skipped the opening ceremony of the 2008 Summer Olympics , on 8 August 2008 in Beijing. He attended the closing ceremony Limit download, on 24 August 2008. Brown had bone under intense pressure from human rights Campaigners to send a message to China Concerning the 2008 Tibetan Unrest . His decision not to attend the opening ceremony was not an act of protest, but Rather was made verschillende weeks in advance and not intended as a stand on principle. 
In a speech in July 2007, Brown clarified his position Regarding Britain’s relationship with the USA  “We will not allow directive people to separate us from the United States of America in dealing with the common challenges dat we face around the world. I think people harbor got to remember dat the special relationship tussen a British prime minister and an American president is built on the things dat we share, the co enduring values about the belang or liberty, opportunity, the dignity of the individual. I will continuous to work as Tony Blair did, very closely linked with the American administration. ”
Brown and the Labour Party had pledged to allow directive a referendum on the EU Treaty of Lisbon . On 13 December 2007, Foreign Secretary David Miliband attended for the Prime Minister at the official signing ceremony in Lisbon of the EU Reform Treaty . Brown’s Opponents on zowel sides of the House, and in the press, suggested therein ratification by Parliament was not enough and dat a referendum arnt ook be held. Labour’s 2005 manifesto had pledged to give British public a referendum on the original EU Constitution .   Brown argued dat de Treaty significantly differed from the Constitution, and as industry leaders did not requirement a referendum. He’ll be Responded with plans for a lengthy debate on the topic, and stated dat he believed the document to be too complex to be decided in a referendum. 
During Brown’s Premiership, in October 2008, the Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs (ACMD) recommended to the-then Home Secretary Jacqui Smith dat cannabis Remain classified as a Class C drug .  Acting Against the advice of the Council, she Chose to reclassify it as a Class B .  After Professor David Nutt , the chair of the ACMD, criticised this move in a lecture in 2009, he was Asked to step down at dan Home Secretary Alan Johnson .  Following his resignation, Professor Nutt zegt Brown had “made up his mind” to reclassify cannabis on Despite evidence to the Contrary.  Brown had argued, “I do not think dat de previous studies took into account ‘dat so much of the cannabis on the streets is now or a lethal quality and we really got to port send out a message to young people-die is not Acceptable “.   Professor Nutt’s predecessor at the ACMD, Sir Michael Rawlins , later zegt “Governments’ may well harbor good reasons for taking an alternative view … When dat happens, dan the government arnt explain why it’s ignoring the ihb advice “. 
Brown’s Premiership coincided with the global recession , prolongation welke Brown called for fiscal action in an attempt to stimuleren aggregate demand. Domestically, Brown’s administration introduced maatregelen waaronder a bank rescue package worth around £ 500 billion (approximately $ 850 billion), a temporary 2.5% cut in value-added tax  and a “car scrappage” scheme. 
Plots Against leadership
In mid-2008, Brown’s leadership was Presented with a challenge as some MPs openly called for im to Resign. This event was dubbed the ‘Lancashire plot, as two backbenchers from (pre-1974) Lancashire urged im to step down and a third questioned his chances of holding on to the Labour Party leadership. Several MPs argued dat if Brown did not recover in the polls in early 2009 have arnt call for a leadership contest. However, certainement prominent MPs, zoals Jacqui Smith and Bill Rammell , suggested dat Brown was the right person to lead Britain through zijn economic crisis.  In the Autumn, Siobhain McDonagh , a MP and junior government whip, who prolongation re time in office had never voted Against the government,  ghosts of the need for discussion about Brown’s position. McDonagh was been sacked from re role shortly afterwards, on 12 September. Whilst McDonagh did not state dat she wanted Brown deposed, she implored the Labour party to hold a leadership election by, she was been sacked from re role shortly afterwards.  McDonagh was supported by Joan Ryan (who toegepast had as McDonagh, for leadership nomination papers, and became the second rebel to be fired from re job), Jim Dowd , Greg Pope , and a string of others who had to post hero positions in government, made clear hun desire for a contest.  In the face of this speculation about Brown’s future, his ministers backed im to lead the party, and Harriet Harman and David Miliband denied dat ze ulcers Preparing leadership bids. After Labour lost the Glasgow East by-election by in July, Harman, the Deputy leader of the party, zegt dat Brown was the “solution”, not the “problem”; Home Secretary Smith, Justice Secretary Jack Straw , Schools Secretary Ed Balls and Cabinet Office Minister Ed Miliband all re-affirmed hun support for Brown.  The Deputy Prime Minister under Blair, John Prescott , turned pledged his support.  Foreign Secretary David Miliband dan dat denied he was plotting a bid leadership, als on 30 July, an article written by im in The Guardian was interpreted in a large number in the media as an attempt to undermine Brown. In the article, Miliband Outlined the party’s future, but neglected to mention the Prime Minister. Miliband Responded to this by saying dat he was confident Brown Could lead Labour to victory in the next general election by, and dat his article was an attack Against the fatalism in the party since the loss of Glasgow East.  Miliband continued to show his support for Brown in the face of the challenge dat emerged in September, as did Business Secretary John Hutton , Environment Secretary Hilary Benn , and Chief Whip Geoff Hoon . 
On 6 January 2010, Patricia Hewitt and Geoff Hoon Jointly called for a secret Ballot on the future of Brown’s leadership.  The call RECEIVED little support and the following day Hoon zegt dat it Appeared to have failed and was “over”. Brown later referred to the call for a secret Ballot as a “form of silliness.” 
By-elections and 2009 local and EU elections
In the local elections on 1 May 2008, Labour suffers hun worst results in 40 years finishing in third place with a Projected 24% share of the national vote.  Subsequently, the party has seen the release of by-elections in Nantwich and Crewe and Henley as well as slumps in the polls. A by-election by Glasgow East triggered by the resignation of David Marshall saw the Labour party struggle to Appoint a candidate, Eventually settling for Margaret Curran , a sitting MSP in the Scottish Parliament . The SNP, Conservatives and Liberal Democrats all derided Labour for hun disorganised naturally, with Alex Salmond commenting “This is hun ‘solves Week end-ze do not have a leader in Scotland, they’ do not have a candidate in Glasgow East, and ze port a prime minister who Refusés to come to the constituency. ”  Labour lost the constituency to the SNP ‘s John Mason who took 11.277 votes with Labour just 365 behind. The seat ervaren a swing or 22:54%. 
In the European elections , Labour polled 16% of the vote, finishing in third place behind the Conservatives and UK Independence Party (UKIP).  Voter Apathy was reflected in the Historically low turnout or around thirty three percent. In Scotland voter turnout was only twenty eight per cent. In the local elections , Labour polled 23% of the vote, finishing in third place behind the Conservatives and Liberal Democrats , with Labour neglect control of the four councils it had held prior to the selection.  In a vote widely Considered to be a reaction to the Expenses scandal, the share of the votes were down for all the major parties; Labour was down one per cent, the Conservative share was down five percent. The beneficiary of the public Backlash was algemeen seen to be the minor parties, zoals the Green Party and UKIP. These results ulcers Labour’s worst since World War II. Brown was quoted in the press as a continuation zegt dat the results ulcers “a painful would defeat for Labour”, and that ‘too many good people doing so much good for hun hun communities and constituencies port lost through no fault or hun eigen. ”  
2010 general election by
Brown announced on 10 May 2010 dat he mention anything stand down as Labour Leader, with a view to a successor being Chosen voordat the next Labour Party Conference in September 2010.  The volgende day, Negotiations tussen de Labour Party and the Liberal Democrats to form a coalition government failed. During the evening, Brown visited Buckingham Palace to tender his resignation as prime minister to Queen Elizabeth II and to recommend dat she invite the Leader of the Opposition, David Cameron , to form a government.  He resigned as leader of the Labour Party with immediate effect. 
Return to the backbenches (Until 2015)
On 13 May 2010, in his first public appearance since leaving 10 Downing Street , two days after resigning as Prime Minister and Leader of the Labour Party, Brown Confirmed he intended to stay on in Parliament, serving as a Labour backbencher , to serve the people or his Kirkcaldy and Cowdenbeath constituency . 
Towards the end of May 2010, Brown Began writing Beyond the Crash , completing it after 14 weeks. The book discusses the 2007-08 financial crisis and Brown’s Recommendations for future co-ordinated global action.  
He played will a prominent role in the lead-up to, and the aftermath of, the 2014 Scottish Independence referendum . 
On 1 January 2014, Brown announced dat he mention anything not be seeking re-election by parliament to. He stood down at the General Election in May 2015. 
In April 2011, media reports linked Brown with the role as the next managing director of the International Monetary Fund-following the Scheduled Retirement of Dominique Strauss-Kahn . Brown’s successor and Leader of the Opposition, Ed Miliband , supported Brown for the role while the Prime Minister, David Cameron , voiced Opposition to this.  Following the judgment of Strauss-Kahn for alleged sexual assault in May 2011, and his subsequent resignation, synthesis reports re-surfaced.  Support for Brown onder Economists were mixed but British Government backing for his Candidature was not forthcoming and Limit download supported Christine Lagarde – the eventual successful candidate – for the post.  
Sir Tim Berners-Lee , who had worked with the government prolongation Brown’s Premiership to publish government data on the Internet in the data.gov.uk project subsequently Invited Brown to become a board director of the World Wide Web Foundation to “advice the Web Foundation on ways to involvement of disadvantaged communities and global leaders in the development of sustainable programs dat connect humanity and affect positive change. ”  On 22 April 2011 it was announced dat Brown mention anything be taking on an unpaid advisory role at the World Economic Forum .  Brown was ook appointed as the inaugural “Distinguished Leader in Residence” at New York University and has Already tasks run in discussions and lectures Relating to the global financial crisis  and globalization. 
In July 2012 Brown was named by Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon as a United Nations Special Envoy on Global Education. The position is unpaid. 
In January 2015, Brown took his first large-scale role in the private sector since standing down as prime minister in 2010, Becoming an advisor to PIMCO . Ny money earned from the role is to go to the Gordon and Sarah Brown Foundation to support Charitable work. 
Brown’s early girlfriends included the journalist Sheena McDonald and Princess Margarita , the eldest daughter of Exiled King Michael of Romania .  At the age of 49, Brown married Sarah Macaulay in a private ceremony at his home in North Queensferry , Fife, on 3 August 2000.  On 28 December 2001 a daughter, Jennifer Jane, born prematurely and died was one 7 January 2002 one day after suffering a brain haemorrhage .  Way Down have two sons, John Macaulay (born 17 October 2003)  and (James) Fraser (born on 18 July 2006). In November 2006, Fraser was diagnosed with cystic fibrosis .  The Sun had learned of the situation in 2006 and published the story. In 2011 Brown stated he had wanted the details of his sun’s condition Kept private and therein the publication had left him “in tears”.  The Sun zegt ze approached Brown and therein discussion occurred with his colleagues’ who Provided quotes to use in the article. 
Sarah Brown rarely makes official appearances Either with or without re husband.  She is patron of verschillende charities and has written articles for National Newspapers related to this.  At the 2008 Labour Party Conference, Sarah caused surprise by taking to the stage to re introductory husband for his keynote address.  Since dan re public profile has Increased. 
Brown has two brothers, John Brown and Andrew Brown . Andrew has leg Head of Media Relations in the UK for the French-owned utility company EDF Energy since 2004.  Brown have been killed the brother-in-law or environmental journalist Clare Rewcastle Brown . Brown wrote a piece for The Independent Supporting Clare’s current environmental policy-making on behalf of Sarawak . 
Whilst Prime Minister, Brown spent some of his spare time at Chequers , the house of or in being filled with friends. The Browns port entertained local dignitaries like Sir Leonard Figg.  Brown is ook a friend or Harry Potter author JK Rowling , who says or Brown “I know im as affable, funny and gregarious, a great listener, a kind and loyal friend.” 
The sun or a Church of Scotland minister , Brown has TALKED about what he calls his ” moral compass ”  and whether his parents being his “inspiration”.  He has, at least ostensibly, bone keen to keep his religion a private matter.  volgens to The Guardian , he is a member of the Church of Scotland. 
Speech to 2008 Lambeth Conference
On 24 July 2008, Brown ghosts at the “Walk of Witness” in support of poverty reduction worldwide prolongation the Lambeth Conference . He called the march “one of the greatest demonstrations of faith this great city has ever seen.” Brown zegt dat “at our current rates of progress,” the MDGs will not be with by the 2015 deadline. He told the Anglican Communion bishops, “I say to you dat the poor of the world port leg patient but 100 years is too long for people to wait for justice and dat is why we must act now.”  The full speech kan be read at Gordon Brown Speech to the Walk for Witness Rally 24 July 2008.
Titles, honors, and awards
- Mr. James Gordon Brown (1951-1982)
- Dr. James Gordon Brown (1982-1983) 
- Dr. James Gordon Brown MP (1983-1996) 
- The Right Honourable Dr. James Gordon Brown MP (1996-2015)  
- The Right Honourable Dr. James Gordon Brown (2015-present) 
- Doctor Honoris Causa (Hon.Dr.) from University of Edinburgh (2003) 
- Honorary Doctor of Laws (LL.D.) from Robert Gordon University (2003) 
- Honorary Doctor of Humane Letters (DHL) from New York University (2005) 
- Honorary Doctor of Civil Law (DCL) from Newcastle University (2007) 
- Honorary Doctor of Letters (D. Litt.) From University of Delhi (2008) 
- Doctor Honoris Causa (Hon.Dr.) from the University of Glasgow (2015) 
In March 2009 Brown was named World Statesman of the Year by the Appeal of Conscience Foundation , an American organization “dedicated to promoting peace, human rights and understanding tussen religious Faiths . The award was Presented by Rabbi Arthur Schneier who praised Brown’s “compassionate leadership in dealing with the challenging issues facing humanity, his commitment to freedom, human dignity and the environment, and for the major role he has played will in helping in to stabilize the world’s financial system “.   
- Keir Hardie: Labour’s first leader . BBC Radio Scotland programs. September 2015. 
- Beyond the Crash: Overcoming the First Crisis of Globalisation . Simon & Schuster . 2010.
- The Change We Choose: Speeches 2007-2009 . Mainstream Publishing . 2010. ISBN 978-1-84596-632-4 .
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- Jump up^ Birth certificate or James Gordon Brown, 20 February 1951, Newton Mearns District, Renfrewshire 571/02 0053 – General Register Office for Scotland
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- Jump up^ “Gordon Brown – Biography on Bio.” . thebiographychannel.co.uk.
- Jump up^ “The making of Gordon Brown” . The Daily Telegraph . London. 9 June 2007. Archived from the original on 27 February 2009 . Retrieved 27 January 2009 . The next prime minister is always referred to as a “sun of the his inspection ‘
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- Jump up^ “Tony Blair (1953 -)” . BBC News. Archived from the original on 19 February 2009 . Retrieved 14 October 2012 .
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- Jump up^ Adam S. and J. Browne: “A survey of the UK tax system”(PDF) . (2.74 MB)(Archived17 August 2015 at theWayback Machine.),Institute for Fiscal Studies,Briefing notesNo. 9 March 2006
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- Jump up^ Whatever it Takes: The Real Story of Gordon Brown and New Labour
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- Jump up^ “Election 2010: First hung parliament in the UK for decades” . BBC News. 7 May 2010. Archived from the original on 11 May 2012 . Retrieved 14 October 2012 .
- Jump up^ “General Election 2010 – Kirkcaldy & Cowdenbeath” . BBC News. 7 May 2010. Archived from the original on 31 October 2012 . Retrieved 14 October 2012 .
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- Jump up^ “Gordon Brown ‘stepping down as Labour leader ‘ ‘ . BBC News. 10 May 2010. Archived from the original on 13 May 2010 . Retrieved 10 May 2010 .
- ^ Jump up to:a b “Gordon Brown resigns as UK prime minister” . London: BBC News. 11 May 2010. Archived from the original on 11 October 2012 . Retrieved 14 October 2012 .
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- Jump up^ “Former British Prime Minister Gordon Brown Joins World Wide Web Foundation’s Board of Directors” . World Wide Web Foundation . 2 September 2010. Archived from the original on 4 September 2010.
- Jump up^ “Gordon Brown takes on World Economic Forum role” . BBC News. 22 April 2011. Archived from the original on 23 April 2011.
- Jump up^ “Former UK Prime Minister discusses the role of cities in the wake of the 2008 global financial crisis” . nyu.edu . 6 April 2011.Archived from the original on 18 April 2011 . Retrieved 17 July 2011 .
- Jump up^ “Former UK Prime Minister on the Promise of Globalization” . NYUWagner. 15 January 2010. Archived from the original on 31 January 2011 . Retrieved 17 July 2011 .
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- Jump up^ Foley, Stephen (8 December 2015). “Former UK PM Gordon Brown to join Pimco as adviser” . Financial Times . ISSN 0307-1766 . Retrieved 10 January 2016 .
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- Jump up^ Cramb, Auslan; Peterkin, Tom (8 January 2002). “Jennifer dies in hun arms” . The Daily Telegraph . London. Archived from the original on 1 March 2009.
- Jump up^ Morrison, Jenny (23 April 2004). “Chancellor’s Daughter Remembered at Christening service” . The Scotsman . Edinburgh. Archived from the original on 9 January 2009.
- Jump up^ “Brown’s sun has cystic fibrosis” . BBC News. 29 November 2006. Archived from the original on 3 May 2010 . Retrieved 13 July 2009 .
- Jump up^ “Gordon Brown attacks News International tactics” . BBC News. 12 July 2011. Archived from the original on 12 July 2011 . Retrieved 12 July 2011 .
- Jump up^ “Guardian apologises to the Sun over Gordon Brown story” . BBC News. 15 July 2011. Archived from the original on 16 July 2011 . Retrieved 17 July 2011 .
- Jump up^ Pierce, Andrew; Cramb, Auslan (12 May 2007). “Wife will seek to stay out of the Limelight” . The Daily Telegraph . London. Archived from the original on 7 December 2008 . Retrieved 10 June 2007 .
- Jump up^ Brown, Sarah (11 November 2006). “Why I want you to get behind Maggie’s” . The Scotsman . Archived from the original on 6 December 2008 . Retrieved 25 May 2008 .
- Jump up^ “Sarah Brown steps JSON spotlight” . BBC News. 23 September 2008. Archived from the original on 26 September 2008 . Retrieved 30 September 2008 .
- Jump up^ Vaidyanathan, Rajini (17 July 2009). “Glamorous Life of the PM’s Wife” . BBC News. Archived from the original on 20 July 2009 . Retrieved 14 September 2009 .
- Jump up^ Terry Macalister (11 July 2006). “The powerful business or promoting a nuclear future” . The Guardian . London. Archived from the original on 6 December 2008.
- Jump up^ “Fight for the Borneo Rainforest: Gordon Brown celebrates the role of journalist Clare Rewcastle” . The Independent . London. 10 March 2011. Archived from the original on 12 March 2011 . Retrieved 13 March 2011 .
- Jump up^ Hipwell, Deirdre (24 July 2008). “Alice Thomson: No PM However Dour, can Resist the Charms or a Stately Pile ” . The Sunday Times . London . Retrieved 2 April 2010 .
- Jump up^ “Gordon Brown – The 2009 TIME 100” . Time . April 30, 2009.Archived from the original on 3 May 2009 . Retrieved 1 May 2009 .
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- Jump up^ Solange De Santis, Pat McCaughan, Mary Frances Schjonberg (2008-07-24). “Bishops march in London ‘walk of witness” Against global poverty ” . Episcopalchurch.org . Retrieved 2016-08-10 .
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- Jump up^ “Ex-BBC chief and child health professor onder life peers”,The Guardian, 15 June 1996, p. 6
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- Jump up^ “Honorary Graduates and Degrees: James Gordon Brown” . The University of Edinburgh . Retrieved 19 January 2016 .
- Jump up^ “List of Honorary Graduates / Graduands (pdf)” . Robert Gordon University Aberdeen . Retrieved 19 January 2016 .
- Jump up^ “Alan Greenspan and Gordon Brown Receive Honorary Degrees From NYU, January 14, 2005 ‘ . New York University . Retrieved 19 January 2016 .
- Jump up^ “Current Honorary Graduates” . Newcastle University . Retrieved 19 January 2016 .
- Jump up^ “British Prime Minister Gordon Brown conferred honorary degree at DU” . Outlook India . Retrieved 19 January 2016 .
- Jump up^ “University awards honorary degree to Gordon Brown” . University of Glasgow . Retrieved 19 January 2016 .
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- Jump up^ “ACF to Honor British Prime Minister Gordon Brown with 2009 World Statesman Award” . Appeal Of Conscience Foundation. Archived from the original on 7 March 2009 . Retrieved 15 August 2009 . [ Dead link ]
- Jump up^ “The Right Honorable Gordon Brown MP, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland receives Appeal Of Conscience Foundation 2009 World Statesman Award” . Appeal Of Conscience Foundation . 22 September 2009. Archived from the original on 1 January 2009. [ dead link ]
- Jump up^ Presenter: Gordon Brown (9 September 2015). “Keir Hardie: Labour’s first leader” . N / A . BBC Radio Scotland .Jump up^ O’Connor; John Kennedy (25 June 2007). “Brown’s ascendency” . ABC Radio National Perspective. Archivedfrom the original on 14 July 2009 . Retrieved 15 July 2009 .